The 2000-2001 Swaziland Household Income and Expenditure Survey is the third survey of its kind to be conducted by the Central Statistical Office (CSO). The first survey was done in 1985 and the second was carried out in 1995.
The principal objectives of the Swaziland HIES are to provide detailed data and statistics to assist policy making both for Swaziland overall as well as for specific regional classifications such as administrative, ecological, urban and rural. Moreover, the results of the survey are intended to be used to:
- Generate macro figures of household consumption and expenditure patterns which would be required to revise the weighting for the Consumption Price Index (CPI);
- Identify current patterns of consumption and to look at the effects of different demographic and social variables on consumption;
- To produce household consumption and expenditure patterns to facilitate market analysis;
- To obtain data on household consumption and expenditure to be used for poverty analysis and studying the dynamics of changes in welfare and standards of living over time, in particular between successive Swaziland HIESs;
- Determine the extent of ownership of household durable goods;
- To obtain data on extra-monetary consumption such as consumption of goods and services either form own production, or from payments and gifts in-kind;
The survey is meant to assist in national economic and social planning, and research, and the formulation of policies as well as assessing and monitoring their effectiveness over time.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 2000-2001 Swaziland Household Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Identification Particulars
- Household Demographic Characteristics (including activities, work status, occupation and industry for persons 12 years and above)
- Housing and Household Possessions
- Sources of Household Income
- Household Enterprises
- Agricultural Income and Expenditure
- Employment Earnings and Deductions (during past 30 days)
- Major Expenditure
- Major Expenditure During Past 12 Months
- Medical Expenditure (non-refundable)
- Expenditure on Education (school fee and other educational expenditure in past year)
- Regular Payments
- Regular Monthly Payments
- Regular Annual Payments
- Transfer of Cash/ Goods from relatives of friends
- Benefits in Kind
- Use of Money outside Swaziland
- Daily Food Expenditure
- Household Cash Receipts
- Goods and Services Received
- Goods and Services Given
- Own Produce Consumed
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
The World Bank
Department for International Development
Financed the technical assistance (processing and analysis of the survey data)
Oxford Policy Management
Process and analyse the data
The sample design for the 2000-2001 Swaziland HIES was a two-stage stratification cluster sample. Stratification was done on the basis of certain considerations which are mentioned below.
The 1997 population census identified 1758 enumeration areas (EAs), and these EAs served as primary sampling units (PSUs). Out of the 1758 EAs, a total of 422 were selected. Moreover, within these 422 EAs, 284 (around 67%) were chosen from rural areas while the remaining 138 were drawn from urban regions. Given that the 1997 census estimates overall rural/urban division as 77% and 23%, it is noted that urban areas were oversampled in order to improve their representativeness and to provide accurate estimates. Following the sampling procedure, appropriate weights were used to inflate the sample to Swaziland's overall population.
Ecologically, the country is divided into four well-defined zones: Highveld, Middleveld, Lowveld, and the Lubombo. Urban areas are of three types. First, there are gazetted towns, which are traditional urban or per-urban areas that developed around trading posts; secondly, company towns, which are densely populated areas of habitation, built as living quarters for laborers working at major plantations, sugar factories, etc.; and thirdly, non-gazetted towns, which are simply informal towns.
Prior to the selection process, the EAs were arranged into six economically homogeneous strata that cut across both rural and urban locations. This stratification process was based on the above mentioned ecological and administrative subdivisions of the country, as well as land distribution and tenure features.
The total number of strata was 11, out of which 8 were rural and 3 urban. Table 24 in Appendix A3 (refer 2000-2001 Swaziland Household Income Expenditure Survey Report) provides a more detailed explanation of the stratification coding breakdown.
The aim was to interview around 350 households in each stratum. The exception was the stratum of gazetted towns, in which twice as many i.e. approximately 700 households were to be interviewed, as the economic activities of households in these towns differ more from one another than in the rest of the strata. In practice, a total of 422 PSUs were sampled. Using a probability proportional to size (PPS) technique, and then 10 households in each PSU were randomly selected. As a result the total number of households for which data collected was planned was 4220. However, primarily due to non-response on the part of certain households, the eventual number of households on which data was obtained was 3552. This represents around 2% of the total number of households in Swaziland.
The two-stage process for computing the weights involves taking the probability of selection at either stage, inverting these probabilities, and then multiplying them.
Note: See detailed sampling information is presented in Appendix A2 of the 2000-2001 Swaziland Household Income Expenditure Survey Report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Each enumerator was assigned 12 EAs throughout the 12 months period and she/he administered interviews in 5 EAs at a time. In each EA, only two households were interviewed for one full calendar month. Thus, during any given calendar month, each enumerator administered 10 interviews. She/he visited all five areas on a weekly basis. In simple terms, the interviewer visited area A on the first day of the first week to conduct interviews in 2 households. On day 2, area B was visited to conduct the same number of interviews, i.e. 2 interviews in 2 households. This procedure was carried on till area E was covered on day 5.
In the second week, the enumerator made follow-up visits to all of the five areas visited during the first week. The same procedure applied so that on the first day of the second week she/ he visited 2 households in area A. The same was done the following day in area B and so on so forth until the end of the fourth week of the month.
In the second month, the enumerator was assigned five new EAs to carry out the same procedure as in the first month. By the end of the second month, the enumerator would have visited 10 EAs including the 5 EAs visited during the first month. In the third month, she/ he made two fresh visits to the remaining EAs, as well as second visits t any three EAs covered in the first month, to investigate a new pair of households.
Various problems were encountered at different levels and different stages in the analysis with regard to data quality and availability. Data on food consumption as recorded in the consumption diary was somewhat lacking. In the case of non-food expenditure, there was no information on the value of durable goods. There were some problems with coding of variables as well, such as missing or incorrect codes. There were also difficulties with periods of reference of expenditure on education and health.
Another area of concern was lack of information on quantities consumed, and by association, prices, as well as unit of weight of quantities consumed. These concerns and issues are discussed in detail in the Appendix A5 of the 2000-2001 Swaziland Household Income and Expenditure Survey report.
Central Statistical Office
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.