The 2002 Malawi Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (2002 CWIQ) Survey was conducted during September-November 2002 by the National Statistical Office (NSO). The survey was nation-wide and was conducted in all the twenty seven districts of the country. A pilot CWIQ was conducted in 2001 and was intended to test the feasibility of the survey methodology and instruments. At the time of the main survey in 2002, it was, however, found necessary to include additional modules which were not tested in the 2001 Pilot CWIQ. These include modules on food security, crime and safety, and HIV/AIDS.
The 2002 CWIQ Survey is designed to provide indicators that would be used for monitoring the living conditions of Malawians through the poverty alleviation programmes. The survey instrument essentially collects simple welfare indicators as well as indicators of access, use and satisfaction with public social services. Although CWIQ is not designed to measure income, consumption or expenditure, there is still need to devise a means of distinguishing poor from nonpoor households. The 2002 Malawi CWIQ identified a set of potential poverty predictor variables which were also collected in the 1998-99 Integrated Household Survey (1998 IHS). The weighted coefficients which were obtained for these variables are then used in the 2002 Malawi CWIQ Survey to define poverty groups (quintiles).
The CWIQ design uses data scanners to capture the data and so dispenses with the traditional keyboard data entry.
The objectives of the CWIQ are:
* Elaborating main indicators for social welfare and basic needs of the socio-economic groups of the population.
* Identifying target groups for benefiting special action programs designed by decision makers to address their needs.
* Monitoring changes happening in the households’ welfare overtime.
* Providing a database for social research.
* Elaborating on numerous sector programs aimed at improving the welfare of the population across the country. In order to prepare these programs, it is necessary to identify the problems to be addressed by the policies and to know to which extent the population is affected by these problems.
- Building up models to stimulate the global impact of policy choices and the distribution of this impact.
- Assessing the impact of HIV/AIDS virus in Malawi
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children under 5 years
- Individuals aged 15-49 years
The 2002 Malawi Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire covered the following topics:
- Interview Information (geographic identifications, interview date, and household id)
- Household Members Characteristics
- Household Assets
- Household Amenities
- Children Under 5
- Food Security
- Safety and Security
- Social Projects
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office (NSO)
Government of Malawi
The World Bank
Department for International Development
Funding the survey
East African Statistical Training Centre (EASTC)
The 2002 Malawi CWIQ Survey stratified the country into rural and urban strata. The urban stratum comprises the four major urban areas (Blantyre, Lilongwe, and Mzuzu Cities and the Municipality of Zomba). All other areas, including Bomas as well as other gazetted towns are considered as rural areas in this survey. Further, each of the twenty-seven districts (as at the time of the survey) was considered as a separate sub-stratum of the main rural stratum. Thus the total number of strata in the survey may be taken as thirty one: twenty seven distric ts and four urban centres. The design of the survey is such that statistical information will be reported at district level. The information will also be presented at city or municipality level.
The 2002 Malawi CWIQ Survey used a two-stage sample design. In the first stage, census enumeration areas (EAs) were selected from each of the 31 strata. The EAs served as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs). The EAs were selected using the probability proportional to size method. The population of the strata was considered for this purpose. In the second stage, sample households were selected within each sample cluster using simple random selection. In order to be able to report at least at stratum level, 22 rural households and 25 urban households were selected from each cluster. In all, 500 EAs were sampled for the survey and 10,593 households were selected. Of these, 9,618 were rural households and 975 households were selected
from urban areas.
A total of 10,593 households were sampled and 9,819 were successfully interviewed. This yielded a national household response rate of 93 percent. Most of the households that were not interviewed in Chikwawa and Blantyre rural could not be located at the time of interviews and a substantial proportion of households in Mzuzu City and Kasungu refused to be interviewed.
The response rates in rural and urban areas of Malawi were about 93 and 90 percent respectively while at regional level the response rates were about 92, 95 and 91percent in the Northern, Central and Southern regions respectively.
At district level, response rates were highest in Mchinji District (about 100 percent), followed by Nkhotakota District (99 percent), Lilongwe Rural, Lilongwe City (98 percent each) and Ntchisi District (96 percent). The lowest response rates were observed in Zomba Municipality (82 percent), Blantyre City (84 percent) and Kasungu District (86 percent each).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
National Statistical Office (NSO)
National Statistical Office (NSO)
The National Statistical Office authorizes the use of the data of the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) by all persons/organizations under the following conditions:
- Written authority should be sought from the Commissioner of Statistics (NSO-Malawi)
- The data will neither be copied nor transmitted to other persons or organizations, directly or indirectly, without prior written consent from the Commissioner of Statistics (NSO-Malawi)
- A copy of all publications/research projects should be sent to NSO-Malawi for comments and information purposes
- All publications produced using the CWIQ database should explicitly state the data source and acknowledge the contribution of the National Statistical Office.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.