The 2002-2003 Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS III) is the third LECS survey conducted in Lao PDR. The first and second LECS were conducted in 1992-1993 and 1997-1998.
The Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS III) covers the whole of Lao PDR. The statistical unit is the households and the survey covers economic transactions of households to estimate household income, consumption and production and a number of social indicators.
The survey was undertaken from March 2002 to February 2003 (12 months) and it is a survey that NSC plans to conduct every 5 years.
LECS is a multi- purpose survey. Such surveys can be designed in various ways with emphasis on particular issues. In 1992/93 the LECS was combined with a large module of social indicators, Lao Social Indicator Survey (LSIS). The 1997/98 and 2002/03 versions focused on economic activities of the households.
The objectives of the LECS are basically to provide:
- macro estimates for the National Accounts, both private consumption and household investments and income from agriculture and businesses
- the consumption structure (weighing system) for the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
- estimates of labor force
- statistics on access to services
- statistics on nutrition
- statistics on poverty and income distribution
The LECS 3 sample was made up of 8,100 households from 540 villages, 15 households from each, enumerated over 12 months starting 1st of March 2002 and ending 28th of February 2003. The sample was selected using the NSC village list as a sampling frame.
The 2002-2003 Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS III) covered the following topics:
- Organizations, Services
- General Economic Conditions
- Land and Land Use in the Village
- Health Care
- Wages, Prices, Restrictions and House Construction
- Household Roster
· Household composition
- Labor Force
· Labor force participation last seven days
· Overview of work in the last seven days
· Activities in the last twelve months
- Household Possession of Durables
- Housing Conditions
- Construction Activities in the Past 12 Months
· Construction of new agricultural buildings
· Construction of new buildings for businesses
- Household Businesses
· Establishing the existence of non-farm enterprises
· Business operations
· Operated land
· Crops planted and/or harvested last wet and dry seasons
· Crops planted and harvested in next to last season
· Disposition of crops
· Fertilizers and insecticides
- Household's Purchase and Selling of Durables the last 12 Months
- Income and Transfers
- Household's Diary Sheet for Household Transactions
- Time Use
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Centre (NSC)
Swedish International Development Agency
A two-stage sampling scheme was used. At the first stage a sample of villages was selected by PPS sampling. The villages were stratified in the following way. Firstly the villages were divided by province, and secondly into urban villages, rural villages with access to road and rural villages without access to road. In all, the village population was divided into 18 (provinces) x 3 (urban/rural classes) = 54 sampling strata. In LECS 2 the sample was allocated equally over the provinces (25 villages in each village). In LECS 3 the allocation was somewhere in between equal allocation and proportional allocation, the number of sample villages in the province ranging from 12 to 48.
The sample of villages in each province was allocated randomly to a survey month so that each survey month had approximately the same number of sample villages.
In the second stage a systematic sample of 15 households was selected in each sample village. The selection was based on a updated list of households in the villages at the time of the survey. The total number of households was less than 15 in four villages. In those villages all households were selected for the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Field Staff, Field Work
The field staff consisted of 180 interviewers organized in 90 two-member teams. 36 supervisors from the provincial statistical offices and 10 central supervisors from head office supervised the teams. The interviewers are permanent staff at the provincial and district statistical offices.
The field work was spread evenly over a 12-month period starting in February 2002, on average 45 villages were visited each month. The teams first duty in the village was to present the survey to the village head and to obtain/prepare a list of households. The team then selected a systematic sample of 15 households according to a predefined procedure.
The completed questionnaires were brought to the provincial statistics office after the survey month and further checked. Data entry was done at NSC in Vientiane.
Each team worked in the field six months during the survey year. The team worked in the villages every second month, the other months they performed other duties in the district or provincial office. Each team thus covered six villages. Transportation to and from villages was done by office vehicles and by public transport (mostly buses). Some of the remote villages required travel by foot for several days.
A large part of the household questionnaire remains the same as in previous surveys, except for some modifications in questions that didn't work well in LECS-2. Some topics, mainly housing, health, agriculture and time use, have been expanded. The household interview is consequently somewhat longer in LECS-3. The new modules/variables are underscored in the list below.
First week interview:
- Household composition (age, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, ethnic group),
- Parents education (highest level completed),
- Education (literacy, highest level completed, reasons for not attending school),
- Labour force module (work during last week, reasons for not working, activities last 12 months) ,
- Victimization module (whether victim of burglary, robbery, theft, violence).
Second week interview:
- Health check, only children (weight, height),
- Possession of durables (type, value),
- Housing conditions (building material, water, toilet, source of energy forr cooking),
- Construction activities (kind of construction, costs).
Third week interview:
- Household businesses module (sector, number of employees or family members working, sales),
- Agriculture module (crops, areas, production, fertilizers, livestock, fishery, forestry),
- Time use.
Fourth week interview:
- Health module (self-rated health, long-term ilnesses or disabilities, health complaints, visits to health care facilities, use of medicines),
- Purchasing and selling of durables (type of item, value),
- Income and transfers (type of income, type of transfers, value),
- Household borrowing (reasons for borrowing, amount, security, interest rate),
- Household lending (amount, interest rate).
-Three other questionnaires were also administered during the month (new modules/variables are underscored).
- Village questionnaire. A village questionnaire wss administered to the head of the village. The questionnaire covers roads and transport, water, electricity, health facilities, local markets, schools etc.
- Primary school questionnaire. Interviews were made with the school principal and the teachers. Data were collected on pupils, school facilities, management of the school, finances and sources of support. The principal and the teachers were also asked questions about the decision-making in the school.
- Price questionnaire. Collection of local prices on 121 commodities at the village market.
Services Division, Department of Statistics
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Lao PDR National Statistical Centre (NSC). Lao PDR Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS3) 2002-2003. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
Department of Statistics (DoS)
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