The 1991 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) is a nationwide survey of households undertaken by the National Statistics Office. It is the main source of data on family income and expenditures.
From 1957 to 1975, the FIES was conducted every five years. However, in 1985, a new series of FIES (in terms of content and methodology) had begun and the gap of conducting this survey was reduced to three years. Hence, this is the ninth FIES since March 1957.
The 1991 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) is a nationwide survey of households undertaken by the National Statistics Office (NSO). Similar surveys were conducted in 1956-1957, 1961, 1965, 1971, 1975, 1979, 1985 and 1988. Like the previous surveys, this undertaking aims to accomplish the following primary objectives:
1. to gather data on family income and family living expenditures and related information affecting income and expenditure levels and patterns in the Philippines;
2. to determine the sources of income and income distribution, levels of living and spending patterns, and the degree of inequality among families;
3. to provide benchmark information to update weights for the estimation of consumer price index (CPI)
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Consumption expenditure item
Income by source
The 1991 Family Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following:
- Identification, household head information, type of household, total number of household members, and number of member of the household who were employed for pay or profit last quarter.
- Housing conditions/ characteristics
- Household consumption and expenditure
- Income and other receipts
- Enterpreneurial activities
The 1991 FIES has as its target population, all households and members of households nationwide. A household is defined as an aggregate of persons, generally but not necessarily bound by ties of kinship, who live together under the same roof and eat together or share in common the household food. Household membership comprises the head of the household, relatives living with him such as his/her spouse, children, parent, brother/sister, son-in-law/daughter-in-law, grandson/granddaughter and other relatives. Household membership likewise includes boarders, domestic helpers and non-relatives. A person who lives alone is considered a separate household.
Institutional population is not within the scope of the survey.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
Government of Philippines
Funding the study
National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)
Provides the approval
The sampling design of the 1991 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) adopts that of the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH), of the National Statistics Office (NSO) which uses a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design with the population size of the barangay as the stratifying variable.
The urban and rural areas of each province are the principal domains of the survey. In addition, the urban and rural areas of cities with a population of 150,000 or more as of 1980 are also made domains of the survey. These cities are the 4 cities in Metro Manila (Manila, Quezon City, Pasay and Caloocan), and the cities of Angeles, Olongapo, Bacolod, Iloilo, Cebu, Zamboanga, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Davao and IIigan.
The rest of Metro Manila, i.e., Makati, Pasig and the 11 other municipalities are treated as three separate domains. In the case of Makati, six exclusive villages are identified and samples are selected using a different scheme. These villages are Forbes Park, Bel-Air, Dasmarinas, San Lorenzo, Urdaneta and Magallanes.
In general, the sample design results in a self-weighting samples within domains, with a uniform sampling fraction of 1:400 for urban areas and 1:6000 for rural areas. However, special areas are assigned different sampling fractions so as to obtain adequate samples for each. Special areas refer to the urban or rural areas of a province or large city which are small relative to their counterparts. T
The primary sampling units (PSUs) under the sample design are the barangays and the households within each sample barangay comprise the secondary sampling units (SSUs). For the purpose of selecting the PSUs, the barangay in each domain are arranged by population size (as of the 1980 Census of Population) in descending equal sizes. Four independent PSUs are drawn with probability proportional to size with complete replacement.
Within each PSU selected at the first stage, a pre-determined number of households (i.e. SSU's) is selected at the second stage using a systematic selection procedure with a random start. The number of households chosen from the ith PSU takes into account the probability of selecting the PSU at the first stage such that each household within the domain has the same over-all probability of selection for the survey (i.e. the sample was self-weighting within domains).
The response rate is the ratio of the total responding households to the total number of eligible households. Eligible households include households who were completely interviewed, refused to be interviewed or were temporarily away or not at home or on vacation during the survey period.
Sampling weights, or raising factors are applied to the data obtained from sample households in order to derive estimates for the population. These weights, or raising factors, are no more than the inverse of the joint probability of selection in the two stages of sample selection.
Since the sample is self-weighting within domains, each of the sample households in all of the strata of a given domain is given the same weight, or raising factor.
However, the basic sampling weights are adjusted to account for interview non-response through the introduction of a non-response adjustment factor applied at the domain level.
Dates of Data Collection
Visit 1 - First Phase
Visit 1 - Second Phase
Data Collection Mode
The Regional Directors (RDs), Provincial statistical Officers (PSOs) , Provincial Statisticians and selected District Statistical Officers (DSOs)/ Statistical Coordination Officers (SCOs) are provided funds for supervision. It is expected that there should always be strict supervision on the conduct of the survey.
All field personnel who will supervise during the operation should prepare an itinerary of travel to insure effective and close supervision of the enumerators. A copy of the itinerary of travel should always be available in the field office so that in case some problems or other matters require the attention of a supervisor, then he can be located easily. Central Office (CO)personnel will also be assigned in the field during the enumeration and it will be important to contact the field staff to determine the status of the operation.
It is the responsibility of the supervisors to give prompt action to problems in the field. The RDs, PSOs and their assistants should visit enumerators (ENs) within their jurisdiction to find out for themselves if instructions are being followed.
During supervision, the following should be done:
1. Observe how the interview is being conducted. Errors noted should be pointed out to the ENs to avoid the same mistakes in succeeding interviews.
2. Scrutinize the accomplished questionnaires for correctness, completeness and consistency of entries and return the problem questionnaires to the ENs for verification of the incorrect entries.
3. Conduct a random re-interview of households/respondents to ensure that the ENs really visited and interviewed the sample households and eligible respondents.
4. Help solve problems encountered by enumerators such as refusals, callbacks and others.
5. Ensure that expected outputs of the ENs are met.
6. Ensure that the ENs who were trained were the ones conducting the interview.
7. Collect the questionnaires from the ENs as well as accomplishment reports.
8. Be available if the ENs need assistance in relation to the conduct of the surveys.
Data Collection Notes
All survey operations were undertaken under the technical and administrative supervision of the National Census and Household Surveys Department (NCHSD), National Statistics Office (NSO). Fieldwork was undertaken by some 870 Statistical Coordination Officers/Assistants (SCOs/ASCOs) and Statistical Researchers (SRs) under the guidance of 14 Regional Census Officers (RCOs), 81 Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) and 88 Regional and Provincial Statisticians. In Metro Manila, supervision was likewise undertaken by SCOs.
The training was conducted in two (2) stages. The first level training held at the Central Office, had the Task Force as participants. They acted as trainers for the second level training held in the regional/provincial offices. RCOs, PSOs, Regional/Provincial Statisticians and SCOs attented this training
The first phase of fieldwork was undertaken from July 8 to 31, 1991 except in Zambales province, and the second phase from January 6 to 31, 1992. Due to Mt. Pinatubo's eruption, the first phase of survey operation in Zambales was conducted from October 4 to 26, 1991.
Standard Output Per Day
The expected output of completed interviews per man-day may vary. For this survey round, the average output is 1.5 households per man-day including travel time. This amounts to 3 completed interviews every two (2) days.
Dealing with Enumeration and Related Problems
One of the problems of any survey undertaking is the failure to get complete information from some respondents. This may be due to the inability of enumerator to find an eligible respondent at home for the interview, refusal of the respondent to be interviewed or insufficient effort and concern by the field enumerators to persuade respondents to be interviewed.
Revisiting the households who were not interviewed is one way of getting less incidence of non-response. As a general rule, the enumerator should make two callbacks or a total of three visits to the household.
If for any reason the respondent refuses to be interviewed, the enumerator should be tactful and patient in persuading the eligible respondents to be interviewed. The assurance that the information provided shall be held confidential and the degree of the respondents understanding of the purpose of the survey may convince the eligible respondent to grant an interview.
In case no member of the household is found at home and the neighbor informs the enumerator that the household would not be expected to be back within the enumeration period, he should make one last visit to the household to confirm the information. In case the household will be back within the enumeration period, make it a point to interview the household.
2. Deferment of Interview
It is possible that even if the respondent is at home, he/she will refuse to be interviewed at that particular moment. In this instance, the enumerator should make an appointment with the respondent at his/her most convenient time. If the postponement of the interview is requested after completing ISH Form 2 and part of FIES Form 1, the enumerator should ask at what time and date when he will return for interview.
Bear in mind that appropriate dealing with field problems lies heavily not only on the enumerators but also on the field supervisors. The supervisors should be responsive to the problems and difficulties presented by the enumerators during the survey period. The SRs must be closely supervised by their supervisors.
3. Lack of Forms
Limited numbers of FIES questionnaires were printed because of the high printing cost. Hence, exact numbers of questionnaires were allocated for each province based on the number of sample households. FIES questionnaires were also provided for use during the second and third level training. Only minimal numbers of reserve questionnaires for enumeration were sent to regional offices. It should be emphasized that proper handling of questionnaires should be observed to avoid their wastage.
4. Problem Area
Some barangays may not be penetrated due to peace and order problems, calamities and other valid reasons. Situations such as these should be reported for appropriate action to the PSO and RD the soonest time possible. The field operation may be postponed in case of flood or other calamities.
5. Accidents or injuries
Report immediately cases of accidents, injury or disability to the DSO, PSO, RD and CO for appropriate action. Necessary documents like doctor's certificate, report of the accident, hospital bills, medicines receipts, etc., should be attached to the report of the DSO/PSO.
National Statistics Office (provincial regular staff, hired enumerators)
Government of Philippines
The questionnaire has five main parts consisting of the following:
Part I. Identification and Other Information (Geographic Identification, Other Information and Particulars about the Family)
Part II. Expenditures and Other Disbursements
Section A. Food, Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco
Section B. Fuel, Light and Water, Transportation and Communication, Household Operations
Section C. Personal Care and Effects, Clothing Footwear and Other Wear
Section D. Education, Recreation, and Medical Care
Section E. Furnishings and Equipment
Section F. Taxes
Section G. Housing, House Maintenance and Minor Repairs
Section H. Miscellaneous Expenditures
Section I. Other Disbursements
Part III. Income and Other Receipts
Section A. Salaries and Wages from Employment
Section B. Net Share of Crops, Fruits and Vegetables Produced or Livestock and Poultry Raised by Other Households
Section C. Other Sources of Income
Section D. Other Receipts
Section E. Check List for Family Sustenance Activities
Part IV. Entrepreneurial Activities
Section A1. Crop Farming and Gardening
Section A2. Livestock and Poultry Raising
Section A3. Fishing
Section A4. Forestry and Hunting
Section A5. Wholesale and Retail
Section A6. Manufacturing
Section A7. Community, Social, Recreational and Personal Services
Section A8. Transportation, Storage and Communication Services
Section A9. Mining and Quarrying
Section A10. Construction
Section A11. Entrepreneurial Activities Not Elsewhere Classified
The 1991 FIES questionnaire contains about 800 data items and a guide for comparing income and expenditures and internal consistency.
Upon submission of the data diskettes containing first and second visit data, a summary file was extracted from the entire file through a computer program. This summary file provided the basis for the generation of the preliminary results in August of 1992.
The questionnaires were further subjected to a rigorous manual and machine edit checks for completeness, arithmetic accuracy, range validity and internal consistency. Items failing any of the edit checks were either corrected automatically by the computer on the basis of pre-determined specifications or, when needed, examined in a clerical error-reconcillation operation.
The electronic data-processing (EDP) system developed by the NSO Data Processing Staff and used in the 1985 and 1988 FIES was generally adopted in processing the 1991 FIES with few modifications. There are thirteen (13) major steps in the machine processing of the 1991 FIES and these are as follows:
1. Data entry and verification
2. Structural editing (minor edit)
3. Edit list verification/correction
5. Completeness check
7. Identification verification
8. Extraction of summary file for preliminary results
9. Matching of visit records (big edit)
12. Generation of CPI weight tables
13. Variance analysis
Steps 1 to 8 were performed right after each visit while the remaining steps were carried out upon completion of the data collection for the first and second visits. Steps 1 to 7 were implemented at the regional office while the concluding steps were handled by the Central Office.
For data entry, IMPS (Integrated Microcomputer Processing System) was used.
Estimates of Sampling Error
As in all surveys, two types of non-response were encountered in the 1991 FIES: interview non-response and item non-response. Interview non-response refers to a sample household that could not be interviewed. Since the survey requires that the sample households be interviewed in both visits, households that transferred to another dwelling unit, temporarily away, on vacation, not at home, household unit demolished, destroyed by fire/typhoon and refusal to be interviewed in the second visit contributed to the number of interview non-response cases.
Item non-response, or the failure to obtain responses to particular survey items, resulted from factors such as respondents being unaware of the answer to a particular question, unwilling to provide the requested information or ENs' omission of questions during the interview. Deterministic imputation was done to address item nonresponse. This imputation is a process in which proper entry for a particular missing item was deduced from other items of the questionnaire where the non-response item was observed. Notes and remarks indicated in the questionnaire were likewise used as basis for imputation.
This (Census/Survey) conforms to the provisions of confidentiality stated under Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 591, which says that the "Data furnished to the Bureau of Census and Statistics (BCS) now known as the National Statistics Office, by an individual, corporation, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall not be used as evidence in any court or in any public office either as evidence against the individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution, or business enterprise from whom such data emanates; nor shall such data or information be divulged to any person except authorized employees of the BCS acting in the performance of their duties; nor shall such data be published except in the form of summaries or statistical tables in which no reference to an individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall appear."
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The NSO shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the NSO.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the NSO.
Any report, paper or similar articles, whether published or not, emanating from the use of this data shall give appropriate acknowledgement as suggested herein, “(Title of Census/Survey, version number and date), National Statistics Office, Manila, Philippines”, as the source of basic data. The data user or client is encouraged to provide NSO with a copy of such report, paper or article. It is understood that unless expressly allowed by the client, such report, paper or article shall not be used for any purpose other than monitoring.