The 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) is Kenya's first survey of its type and provides comprehensive information on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). These data provide the information needed for advocacy and for planning appropriate interventions for HIV prevention, treatment and care. The 2007 KAIS builds upon previous national-level HIV estimates from the first population-based survey with HIV testing, the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS); this allows us to compare prevalence estimates and important behavioural indicators between 2003 and 2007.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Person aged 15-64
The 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey covered the following topics:
· Household census
· Parental survivorship
· Household characteristics
· Mosquito net use
· Support to households for sick and recently deceased adults, and OVCs
· Socio-demographic characteristics
· HIV/STI knowledge and attitudes
· Marriage and sexual partnerships
· Fertility and family planning
· Uptake of HIV prevention, care and treatment services
The survey covered all the districts in Kenya. The data representativeness are at the following levels: national, urban/rural, provincial, district.
All women and men aged 15-64 years in selected households who were either usual residents or visitors present the night before the survey were eligible to participate in the individual interview and blood draw, provided they gave informed consent. For minors aged 15-17 years, parental consent and minor assent were both required for participation. Participants could consent to the interview and blood draw or to the interview alone. The inclusion criteria may have captured non-Kenyans living as usual residents or visitors in a sampled household. Military personnel and the institutionalized population (e.g. imprisoned) are typically not captured in household-based surveys, but may have been included in the 2007 KAIS if at home during the survey.
Producers and sponsors
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning and National Development
Ministry of Health
University of California San Francisco
U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS
World Health Organization
Administratively, Kenya is divided into eight provinces. Each province is divided into districts, each district into divisions, each division into locations, each location into sub-locations, and each sublocation into villages. For the 1999 Population and Household Census, the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) delineated sub-locations into small units called Enumeration Areas (EAs) that constituted a village, a part of a village, or a combination of villages. The primary sampling unit for Kenya's master sampling frame, and for the 2007 KAIS, is a cluster, which is constituted as one or more EAs, with an average of 100 households per cluster. The master sampling frame for the 2007 KAIS was the National Sample Survey and Evaluation Programme IV (NASSEP IV) created and maintained by KNBS. The NASSEP IV frame was developed in 2002 based on the 1999 Census. The frame has 1800 clusters, comprised of 1,260 rural and 540 urban clusters. Of these, 294 (23%) rural and 121 (22%) urban clusters were selected for KAIS.
The 2007 KAIS was conducted among a representative sample of households selected from all eight provinces in the country, covering both rural and urban areas. A household was defined as a person or group of people related or unrelated to each other who live together in the same dwelling unit or compound (a group of dwelling units), share similar cooking arrangements, and identify the same person as the head of household. The household questionnaire was administered to consenting heads of sampled, occupied households. All women and men aged 15-64 years in selected households who were either usual residents or visitors present the night before the survey were eligible to participate in the individual interview and blood draw, provided they gave informed consent. For minors aged 15-17 years, parental consent and minor assent were both required for participation. Participants could consent to the interview and blood draw or to the interview alone. The inclusion criteria may have captured non-Kenyans living as usual residents or visitors in a sampled household. Military personnel and the institutionalized population (e.g. imprisoned) are typically not captured in household-based surveys, but may have been included in the 2007 KAIS if at home during the survey.
The overall design for the 2007 KAIS was a stratified, two-stage cluster sample for comparability to the 2003 KDHS. The first stage involved selecting 415 clusters from NASSEP IV and the second stage involved the selection of households per cluster with equal probability of selection in the rural-urban strata within each district. The target of the 2007 KAIS sample was to obtain approximately 9,000 completed household interviews. Based on the level of household nonresponse reported in the 2003 KDHS (13.2% of selected households), 10,375 households in 415 clusters were selected for potential participation in the 2007 KAIS. Table 1.4 shows the provincial distribution of households and clusters originally sampled for the 2007 KAIS.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Of the original 415 clusters, 402 were accessed and surveyed. Thirteen clusters were inaccessible due to impassable roads or tenuous security situations. All reported estimates and design weights for households, individual interviews, and blood draws are based on data from the 402 clusters.
Overall, participation rates in the 2007 KAIS were high. We calculated household response rate as the number of households consenting to the household interview divided by the total number of sampled households that were located and occupied. The individual interview response rate was calculated as the number of individuals who completed interviews divided by the number of individuals eligible for the individual interview based on the household census. Only those participating in the individual interview were eligible to participate in the blood draw. We calculated blood draw coverage as the number of blood draws divided by the number of all individuals eligible for the individual interview; the blood draw response rate reflects the number of successful blood draws divided by the number of individuals who completed individual interviews.
The final weights were derived from the design weights of the NASSEP IV sampling frame and subsequently adjusted for non-response. Three weights were calculated for analyses: a household weight, an individual interview weight and a blood draw weight.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Six teams of supervisors representing different KAIS collaborating institutions routinely visited field teams during data collection. Supervision teams travelled throughout the country to assess mobilisation efforts, perform quality checks on questionnaires and field laboratory procedures, deliver additional survey supplies, troubleshoot challenges and provide psychosocial support to field teams. Supervision reports were disseminated among the KAIS leadership and key issues were addressed immediately.
Data Collection Notes
In July 2007, 204 skilled interviewers, laboratorytechnicians, laboratory scientists and field supervisors were recruited and trained for two weeks in the 2007 KAIS procedures. The training involved didactic presentations, small group discussions and practical sessions, such as mock interviews and blood draws.
Interviewers were trained to identify eligible households and individuals, seek informed consent, educate participants about HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis, and administer questionnaires using objective interview techniques. Field laboratory technicians and scientists were trained in preparing respondents for the blood draw and in specimen collection, processing, storage and transportation to the central laboratory in Nairobi. Laboratory training emphasized ways to minimise risks in handling biological specimens. Laboratory technicians were trained to process and analyse specimens in the laboratory and to issue return of results vouchers for participants to retrieve their test results.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning and National Development
Two questionnaires were used: a household questionnaire and an individual questionnaire. The content of the questionnaires was adapted from standard AIDS Indicator Survey questionnaires developed by ORC Macro, the 2003 KDHS HIV Module and previous surveys conducted in Africa. Various stakeholders in NACC, the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP) and other HIV/AIDS organizations working in Kenya met to determine the key HIV program information needs and gaps. The KAIS Technical Working Group (TWG) modified existing questions and designed new questions to reflect current and emerging issues in HIV/AIDS in the country. The final questionnaires were translated from English into Kiswahili and 11 vernacular languages and back-translated into English to ensure accuracy. The questionnaires were further refined after a pilot study prior to distribution of the final versions to field staff.
The household questionnaire gathered basic information from the head of the household on usual members and visitors in the household, including age, sex, education, relationship to the head of household, and orphanhood among children. Information was collected on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, property ownership, and mosquito nets. Heads of household were also asked whether the household had received specific types of care and support in the 12 months prior to the survey for any chronically ill adults, any household members who died, and any orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). The household questionnaire was also used to record the respondents’ consent for blood collection and testing.
The individual questionnaire collected information from eligible women and men aged 15-64 years on basic demographic characteristics, marriage, sexual activity, fertility, and family planning. In addition, the tool included questions regarding HIV and STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, HIV testing, HIV care and treatment uptake, and other health issues, such as tuberculosis, blood donation and medical injections.
Data processing included a number of steps to prepare data collected in the field for analysis. The initial steps included editing questionnaires, both in the field and at KNBS, and double-data entry of all questionnaire responses to minimise errors. Data were entered using Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) version 3.3.3 Once all survey responses were transferred to electronic format, the next step was to ensure full concordance between the two data entry databases, using paper questionnaires to resolve any discrepancies in transcription. A series of internal consistency and range checks helped to identify any illogical responses and to verify that responses adhered to skip patterns in the questionnaire. Data validation programs for data cleaning were written in Stata version 8.04 and corrections were entered directly in CSPro at KNBS.
A concurrent process of cleaning the raw laboratory data was conducted at the NHRL. The final, cleaned questionnaire database at KNBS was merged with the laboratory results database at the NHRL using unique survey identification numbers to ensure accurate matches (>99.9% of identification numbers were matched). After successfully merging the questionnaire and laboratory results databases, cluster and household identification numbers were serialized from 1-402 and from 1-25, respectively. Original cluster and household numbers, barcodes, and individual survey identification numbers were stripped from the database prior to weighting and analysis to ensure anonymity of survey participants.
Data analysis was conducted using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.135, which has procedures to account for multi-stage stratified sampling designs and can produce reliable standard errors and confidence intervals.
The data users shall acknowledge that any available intellectual property rights, including copyright in the data are owned by the KNBS. The data user or client is encouraged to provide KNBS with a copy of such report, paper or article.
DDI Document ID
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030
Documentation of the Study
Accelerated Data Program
Internaitonal Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (October 2013). Edited version based on Version 01 DDI that was done by Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and reviewed by Accelerated Data Program, International Household Survey Network.