The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime. This is the first CFSVA conducted in Uganda.
The general objective of the Uganda CFSVA was to provide a baseline assessment of food insecurity and vulnerability in rural households of Uganda in a non-emergency setting, including the characterization of who are the food insecure, how many are there, where do they live, why are they food insecure and what intervention is appropriate to reduce their food insecurity and vulnerability. The specific objectives of the Uganda CFSVA are to:
• provide information on food security and nutritional status in rural Uganda;
• document the resources accessible to rural households and their resource allocation, including the livelihood and income-earning activities pursued at the household level;
• assess rural communities’ exposure to crises and the coping mechanisms they use;
• when possible, examine the evolution of food insecurity and vulnerability over time;
• evaluate the context (education, health, social structure) and future risks for food security and livelihoods;
• establish a typology and geographic distribution of food-insecure and vulnerable households; and
• recommend appropriate food and non-food programme interventions to address both contextual and structural problems that affect food security in rural Uganda.
Revision of metadata, further data cleaning and inclusion of relevant external resources
The scope of the analysis includes:
HOUSEHOLD: The household questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative data in 11 areas: (1) demographics, (2) contextual information, (3) housing and facilities, (4) assets, (5) income, (6) expenditures, (7) food sources and consumption, (8) shocks and food security, (9) HIV/AIDS, (10) maternal health and nutrition (11) child health and nutrition.
MOTHERS AND CHILDREN: Measurements of the height and weight of mothers and children were included in the household questionnaire to assess nutritional status. Standard locally produced height boards for adults and children were used to measure height. UNICEF SECA 890 electronic scales were used to weigh mothers and children.
COMMUNITY: The community questionnaire was structured, open ended and designed to collect qualitative information on (1) demographics, (2) migration, (3) transportation, (4) water and sanitation, (5)
education, (6) health, (7) market information, (8) agriculture and animal husbandry, (9) livelihoods, and (10) assistance and food aid. The community questionnaire was intended to contextualize the information collected at the household level.
consumption/consumer behaviour [1.1]
economic conditions and indicators [1.2]
income, property and investment/saving [1.5]
rural economics [1.6]
agricultural, forestry and rural industry [2.1]
basic skills education [6.1]
compulsory and pre-school education [6.2]
general health [8.4]
land use and planning [10.2]
Rural national coverage with the exception of Kampala by sub-region
The sample universe for this study was all rural households of Uganda.
Producers and sponsors
World Food Programme
United Nations World Food Programme
A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select households within each stratum. Because a large number of strata were defined (13) and because those strata were designed to be homogeneous, within each stratum, one third of the districts, with a minimum of two districts per stratum, was sampled proportionate to population size using 2002 census data. Figure 1.4-1 presents a map of the resulting 14 strata. The hatch marks highlight the districts that were sampled. The sampling procedure was logistically sounder than a simple random sampling of villages. Strata 14 (Kampala) was not surveyed, as this exercise focused on rural households. Within the selected districts and for each stratum, 20 rural sub-counties were randomly selected proportionate to size. No population data were available at a lower-aggregated level (e.g., villages), so within each sub-county, one village (or camp, where applicable) was randomly selected from a comprehensive list of villages and camps. Annex 3 presents the list of sub-counties and villages that were sampled.
Because comprehensive lists of all the households were not systematically available, interviewers were randomly assigned to “zones” of relative size within the villages or camps, as identified by village or camp leaders. The interviewers were directed to the center of each zone, where they randomly selected a direction in which to walk, and then selected every other household within that area. In each selected household, one adult (at least 15 years or older) was selected to be interviewed. When a selected household or individual was unable to participate, the next available household, or another individual within the selected household, was selected.
The minimum target sample size for each stratum was 200, for a total of 2,600 households. Sample size was determined using the difference-in-proportion formula and was adjusted for design effect due to stratification and multi-stage cluster sampling, using a of 5%, a level of precision of 10% and a design effect of 2. The assumed power was .80. During the data collection, 838 households were empty or refused to participate. Data collection took place from July 29, 2005, to August 29, 2005. The final sample size obtained was 2,987 households. Using the complex sample module of EpiInfo, the average design effect was estimated at 1.5, and the margin of error was within 3%.
Household weights are calculated by population per sub-region
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
World Food Programme
Data Collection Notes
A standardized consent form was used to secure the participation of selected individuals. Participation was voluntary, and respondents did not receive any money or compensation for participating. Names were not recorded. Because of the diversity of ethnicity and language in Uganda, 18 teams of 7 experienced staff members were trained to use the various questionnaires and to perform the measurements. Supervisors were trained by WFP centrally in Kampala over five days. Enumerators were trained centrally or at the district level over a three- to four-day period. Training included a general overview on how to conduct interviews and practice sessions with the questionnaire and on taking measurements. Each team reflected the ethnic and language composition of the surveyed areas and presented a diversity of age and gender. Data collection was implemented by two local partners, the Institute of Public Health at Makerere University (northern and eastern regions) and the Faculty of Agriculture at Makerere University (central and western region), under the supervision of WFP.
Institute of Public Health
Faculty of Agriculture
Two different instruments were used during primary data collection: a household questionnaire and a community questionnaire:
1. The household questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative data in 11 areas: (1) demographics, (2) contextual information, (3) housing and facilities, (4) assets, (5) income, (6) expenditures, (7) food sources and consumption, (8) shocks and food security, (9) HIV/AIDS, (10) maternal health and nutrition (11) child health and nutrition. The instrument was a structured questionnaire using openended questions. Response options were provided to the enumerators but were not read to the respondents. For several questions, respondents were allowed to provide more than one response.
2. Measurements of the height and weight of mothers and children were included in the household questionnaire to assess nutritional status. Standard locally produced height boards for adults and children were used to measure height. UNICEF SECA 890 electronic scales were used to weigh mothers and children.
3. The community questionnaire was structured, open ended and designed to collect qualitative information on (1) demographics, (2) migration, (3) transportation, (4) water and sanitation, (5) education, (6) health, (7) market information, (8) agriculture and animal husbandry, (9) livelihoods, and (10) assistance and food aid. The community questionnaire was intended to contextualize the information collected at the household level. The resulting instrument was a structured, open-ended questionnaire. Response options were not systematically provided to the enumerators. Rather, the enumerators were asked to record exactly what respondents had to say.
The questionnaires were designed in a participatory manner that involved representatives from various agencies active in food security in Uganda. Because of the multiplicity of languages in Uganda, the instruments were not translated into the local languages. Proficiency in both English and the local language of the area being surveyed was one of the criteria for the selection of enumerators. While this may be considered a limitation to the study (e.g., different interviewers may translate the same question in a different way), the relative simplicity of the questions limited the risk of misinterpretation. Prior to the launch of the survey, the instruments were piloted among local experts, randomly selected individuals and a random sample of participants in a non-study site. Necessary revisions were made after each pilot stage.
Data entry for the household and community questionnaires was operated by Makerere University. Double data entry was used for the household questionnaire. Data entry used an Access database developed by WFP.
Statistical analysis was conducted by WFP in Uganda and Rome. Principal component analysis was done using SPSS. SPSS and ADDATI 5.2c were used to conduct PCA and clustering analysis. Nutritional indicators were calculated using EpiInfo EPINUT. All other analysis was done using SPSS.
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping
World Food Programme
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World Food Programme. Uganda Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis Assessment 2005. Ref. UGA_2005_CFSVA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://nada.vam.wfp.org/index.php/catalog on [date].
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DDI Document ID
World Bank Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 1.2 - August 2009, DDI-UGA-WFP-CFSVA-2005-v1.2) of DDI was done by Amit Wadhwa (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, Study ID, Abbreviation, Overview, and Data Collection. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.