The Labour Force Survey (LFS) has been carried out in Poland since May 1992 on the quarterly basis. The survey was not conducted in 2nd and 3rd quarter of 1999. Since the 1st quarter of 2001, the survey methodology has been adjusted to the EUROSTAT recommendation.
The survey concentrates on the situation from the point of view of the economic activity of the population, i.e. the fact of being employed, unemployed or economically inactive in the reference week.
The main objective of the survey is obtaining information on participation of persons aged 15 years or more, in regular education, education outside the regular education system (non-formal education), and in informal education.
In particular, the survey results will be used to:
· Identification of the field in which education or training was attended,
· Determining the number and time of learning activities the respondent has attended during the last 12 months,
· Finding reasons for participation in training,
· Evaluation of the extent of the training completion,
· Identification of the most often applied methods of self-learning.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual aged 15 and over
Demographic characteristics: age, sex, place/country of birth, nationality, place/country of previous residence, educational attainment, relationship to household head, disability
Main labour related characteristics: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, wages, employment related benefits, occupational injuries, training received, voluntary work, absence from work
Other labour related characteristics: industry, occupation, status in employment, institutional sector (public/private), size of establishment, full time/part time status, permanency of the job, duration of employment, existence of more than one job, characteristics of the second job(s), duration of unemployment, previous working experience, characteristics of the last job, search for another job, reasons for seeking another job, methods of looking for work, registration as unemployed, receipt of unemployment benefits, reasons for not being in the labour force, transition from school to work, transition from work to retirement.
The LFS covers persons aged 15 and over who are the members of sampled households. The survey does not cover the members of households who stayed abroad above 2 months. Neither does it cover the population living in the collective households, such as lodging-houses for employees, student hostels, boarding-schools, army barracks, houses for the poor and the old, etc.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
Government of Poland
Funded the study
The Labour Force Survey is the probability sample survey. Its results are generalized on the general population.
Since the fourth quarter of 1999, the observation of the reference week in the middle month of a quarter has been replaced by the continuous observation method, which means that in each of the 13 weeks of a quarter 1/13th part of the quarterly sample of dwellings is surveyed. It allows presenting the situation on the labour market during a whole quarter.
The selection of quarterly samples follows principles of the so-called rotation scheme according to which there are scheduled for the interview in a given quarter: two elementary samples2 surveyed in the previous quarter, one elementary sample introduced into the survey for the first time and one elementary sample that was not surveyed in the previous quarter and had been introduced into the survey exactly one year before. As the result of this rotation system each elementary sample is used according to the 2-(2)-2 principle: two quarters in the survey, two quarters break, again two quarters in the survey and then out.
The selection of the sample to the LFS survey is carried out according to the principles of the two-stage sampling. The first-stage sampling units are census units called census clusters (in urban areas) and census enumerations districts (in rural areas) stratified by voivodships and classes of localities. The second-stage sampling units are dwellings. The selections of the first-stage sampling units and dwellings is carried out on the basis of the National Official Register Territorial Division of the Country, including, i.a. the list of territorial statistical units and the address register of dwellings aggregated in accordance with particular census clusters and census enumeration districts.
The estimation process consists in defining the appropriate generalizing factors, alias weights. This is achieved in three steps.
The first step provides primary weights which basically are the reciprocals of selection probabilities for ultimate sampling units (i.e. dwellings), what gives the compensation for the disproportionate construction of the sample. Then the so called interview rates R are calculated by the formula: R=(K-N)/K, where K is the number of interviewed dwellings estimated using primary weights and N is the number of non-interviewed dwellings which should be interviewed. The interview rates are calculated in six places of residence categories.
The secondary weights are calculated by dividing primary weights by 1-R, where R rate depends on the category of place of residence of a given dwellings (the rural area or one of the five town classes mentioned above). The secondary weights are also final for results concerning households and families.
Final weights for the results concerning population are calculated in the third step. The purpose of this step is adjustment of the LFS results to the current demographic estimates. It is given by calculation of the so called modifiers for each of 48 categories defined by the place-of-residence (urban/rural), sex and 12 age groups, the same as in the LFS tables. The weights are calculated by dividing the number of people in each group according to the demographic estimates by the number of people in these categories calculated from the LFS results with appliance of secondary weights from the second step. Final weights result from multiplication of secondary weights by adequate modifiers.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Labour Force Survey is carried out with the use of two questionnaires:
• ZG Household File - assigned to each household recorded in the surveyed dwelling (ZG Files comprise household register during the entire survey cycle);
• ZD questionnaire, completed each quarter for every person aged 15 years and more present in the household or absent from the household; the ZD questionnaire includes questions concerning the respondent's current economic activity (i.e. the fact of performing work, being unemployed or economically inactive), occupational history, the methods of job search, as well as additional questions concerning, i.e. education and training.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.