World Values Survey Wave 5 2005-2009 covers 58 countries and societies around the world and more than 83,000 respondents. The series includes the following waves:
Wave 6 (2010-2014)
Wave 5 (2005-2009)
Wave 4 (1999-2004)
Wave 3 (1995-1998)
Wave 2 (1990-1994)
Wave 1 (1981-1984)
The World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org) is a global network of social scientists studying changing values and their impact on social and political life, led by an international team of scholars, with the WVS association and secretariat headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. The survey, which started in 1981, seeks to use the most rigorous, high-quality research designs in each country. The WVS consists of nationally representative surveys conducted in almost 100 countries which contain almost 90 percent of the world’s population, using a common questionnaire. The WVS is the largest non-commercial, cross-national, time series investigation of human beliefs and values ever executed, currently including interviews with almost 400,000 respondents. Moreover the WVS is the only academic study covering the full range of global variations, from very poor to very rich countries, in all of the world’s major cultural zones. The WVS seeks to help scientists and policy makers understand changes in the beliefs, values and motivations of people throughout the world. Thousands of political scientists, sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists and economists have used these data to analyze such topics as economic development, democratization, religion, gender equality, social capital, and subjective well-being. These data have also been widely used by government officials, journalists and students, and groups at the World Bank have analyzed the linkages between cultural factors and economic development.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution. All deposited data has been made anonymous at the PI side and the archive deposited files have no means to trace the respondents.
Version history: -v2018-09-12: Current official release General revision, mostly of missing labels. Inclusion of region, town, interview date in some countries when missing and found. Old releases: 2014-04-29
The Survey covers the United States.
The WVS for the United States covers national population aged 18 years and over, for both sexes.
Producers and sponsors
University of Michigan Ann Arbor
Max D. Larsen, Ph.D.
The Gallup Organization
Jon Miller Room
Sample was stratified by age (18-29, 20-44, 45-59, 60+), education (less than HS, HS, some college, Bachelors +), ethnicity (white non-hispanic, black non-hispanic, other non-hispanic, Hispanic, 2+ races non-hispanic), and gender The eight sources of deviation from epsem design are:
1 Half sampling of telephone numbers for which we could not find an address
2 RDD sampling rates proportional to the number of phone lines in the household
3 Minor oversampling of Chicago and Los Angeles due to early pilot surveys in those two cities
4 Short-term double-sampling the four largest states (CA, NY, FL, and TX) and central region states
5 Under-sampling of households not covered by MSN TV
6 Oversampling of minority households (Black and Hispanic)
7 Oversampling of households with PC and Internet access 8 Selection of one adult per household.
Remarks about sampling:
Once Panel Members are recruited and profiled, they become eligible for selection for specific surveys. In most cases, the specific survey sample represents a simple random sample from the panel. The sample is drawn from eligible members using an implicitly stratified systematic sample design. Customized stratified random sampling based on profile data is also conducted, as required by specific studies. The primary sampling rule is not to assign more than one survey per week to members. In certain cases, a survey sample calls for pre-screening, that is, members are drawn from a sub-sample of the panel (e.g., females, Republicans). In such cases, care is taken to ensure that all subsequent survey sample drawn that week are selected in such a way as to result in a sample that is representative of the panel distributions.
The sample size for the United States is N=1249 and includes national population aged 18 years and over, for both sexes.
Total number of starting names/addresses 1710
Full productive interview 1201
Partial productive interview 48
Response rate: 73,04% (1249/1710)
Remarks about non-response:
Knowledge Networks selected 1,710 members of its panel to participate in the survey. While 1,249 responded to the invitation to participate, forty-eight did not complete the entire self-administered Web survey. Because Knowledge Networks utilizes a panel methodology, we also report a separate panel recruitment response rate (AAPOR RR #3). This measure is the mean response rate for all panel recruitment cohorts from which these 1,710 panelists belong.
Whereas in principle the simple design is an equal probability design that is self-weighting, in fact there are several known deviations from this guiding principle. Furthermore, despite our efforts to correct for known sources of deviation from equal-probability design, there are several other sources of survey error that are an inherent part the process. We address these sources of survey error globally through the poststratification weights, which we describe below. The primary purpose of a post-stratification adjustment to survey weights is to reduce the sampling error for characteristics highly correlated with reliable demographic and geographic totals called population benchmarks. To implement post-stratification, we employed the following weighting techniques:
1. Calculate a base design weight for all sampled cases.
2. Modify this base design weight for the cases that completed the survey by calculating post-stratification weights against CPS population benchmarks for the adult age group. The raking variables are: age: 18-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60 and over gender: male, female race/ethnicity: white (non-Hispanic), black (non-Hispanic), other (non-Hispanic), Hispanic region: northeast, midwest, south, west education - highest level achieved: less than high school, high school, some college, college degree or more. In order to calculate final weights, we derive weighted sample distributions along various combinations of the above variables. Similar distributions are calculated using the most recent U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey data and the Knowledge Networks panel data. Cell-by-cell adjustments over the various univariate and bivariate distributions are calculated to make the weighted sample cells match those of the U.S. Census and the Knowledge Networks panel. This process, known as raking, is repeated iteratively until there is convergence between the weighted sample and benchmark distributions (CPS distributions).
Occasionally, collapsing of post-stratification cells is necessary. This is dependent on the size of the sample and topology of the sample universe. Final post-stratification weights are provided. The final weights are censored at the extreme tails (1%, 99%). WEIGHT2 is scaled to the number of qualified completes cases (qflag=1).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The main method of data collection in the WVS survey is face-to-face interview at respondent’s home / place of residence. Respondent’s answers could be recorded in a paper questionnaire (traditional way) or by CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview). The approval of the Scientific Advisory Committee in writing is necessary for application of any methods of data collection other than face-to-face interview. Following the sampling, each country is left with a representative national sample of its public. These persons are then interviewed during a limited time frame decided by the Executive Committee of the World Values Survey using the uniformly structured questionnaires. The survey is carried out by professional organizations using face-to-face interviews or phone interviews for remote areas. Each country has a Principal Investigator (social scientists working in academic institutions) who is responsible for conducting the survey in accordance with the fixed rules and procedures. During the field work, the agency has to report in writing according to a specific check-list. Internal consistency checks are made between the sampling design and the outcome and rigorous data cleaning procedures are followed at the WVS data archive. No country is included in a wave before full documentation has been delivered. This means a data set with the completed methodological questionnaire and a report of country-specific information (for example important political events during the fieldwork, problems particular to the country). Once all the surveys are completed, the Principal Investigator has access to all surveys and data. Non-response is an issue of increasing concern in sample surveys. Investigators are expected to make every reasonable effort to minimize non-response. In countries using a full probability design, no replacements are allowed. PIs should plan on as many call-backs as the funding will allow. In countries using some form of quota sampling, every effort should be made to interview the first contact.
Knowledge Networks - Government & Academic Research
English Questionnaire. some question(s) not included: V254 (how interested was respondent?)
Reason(s) not included: Because the survey was self-administered and V254 is for the interviewer. V55 (Marital status) V56 (Number of children) V235 (Gender) V236 (age) V237 (age) V238 (education level) V241 (employment status) V256 (Race/ethnicity) Reason(s) not included: Knowledge Networks has similar information currently on file for the panelists and appended those and other supplemental demographic variables to the data file.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Director of the WVSA Archive
WVSA Data Archive
Inglehart, R., C. Haerpfer, A. Moreno, C. Welzel, K. Kizilova, J. Diez-Medrano, M. Lagos, P. Norris, E. Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (eds.). 2014. World Values Survey: Round Five - Country-Pooled Datafile Version: www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV5.jsp. Madrid: JD Systems Institute.
Location of Data Collection
World Values Survey
Archive where study is originally stored
World Values Survey http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp Cost: None
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.