The primary objectives of Malawi MICS are to:
- Provide up-to-date information at the district level for assessing the situation of children and women in Malawi;
- Support the monitoring of MGDS indicators;
- Furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established by the MDGs, WFFC goals and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;
- Contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Malawi and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The scope of Malawi 2006 MICS includes:
- Household listing
- Water and sanitation
- Household characteristics
- Child labor
- Salt iodisation
UNDER-5 CHILDREN QUESTIONNAIRE
- Vitamin A
- Care of illness
- Child mortality
- Birth history
- Tetanus Toxoid (TT)
- Maternal and newborn health
- Sexual behavior
- Maternal mortality
- Sexual behavior
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office
Since the objective of the MICS 2006 is to obtain estimates at district level on the key indicators related to the well being of children and women, it is estimated that a sample size of 1,200 households (HHs) is required per district to obtain statistically valid estimates at 95 percent confidence interval for majority of the indicators.
Each district was considered as a sampling domain and an equal allocation of 1,200 households was used. Presently there are 28 districts in Malawi; however, 26 districts were included in the survey and two districts (namely Likoma and Neno) were merged with other districts for the following reasons: The district of Likoma is too small an island to draw 1,200 households out of the total available households. Therefore, the population of Likoma was merged with Nkhata Bay district and the few selected clusters that have fallen in Likoma island have been canvassed. In the Southern Region, Neno district was part of Mwanza district as per the census frame used for sample selection. Therefore, Neno was not considered as a separate district, but rather was merged with Mwanza.
A two-stage sampling methodology was adopted in MICS 2006 to select the 1,200 households. Within each district, 40 census enumeration areas (clusters) were selected with probability proportional to size. A household listing was carried out within the cluster and a systematic sample of 30 households was drawn to obtain 1,200 households per district. For reporting results at the regional and national levels, sample weights were used.
A total of 31,200 HHs (26 districts x 1200 HHs) were selected in 1,040 clusters (26 districts x 40 clusters). All the selected 1,040 clusters were covered during the fieldwork period. MICS 2006 is thus one of the largest household surveys undertaken in Malawi.
Notes: See Appendix A of the report for detailed sample design information.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The field staff were trained for 15 working days (three weeks) during June/July 2006. Twenty-six teams collected the data; each team comprised of four interviewers, one editor/measurer, one supervisor and a driver. The interviewers and editors were selected from the districts but the supervisors were NSO core staff. Fieldwork took four months from mid-July to mid-November 2006 and included a house listing operation, sample selection, interviewing the respondents and taking anthropometry measurements for children.
Four questionnaires were used in the survey. In addition to a household questionnaire that was used to collect information on all household members, the household, and the dwelling, questionnaires were administered in each household to women aged 15–49. Mothers or caretakers of children under the age of five were identified in each household, and these individuals were interviewed about the children. Questionnaires were also administered to men aged 15–49 years in every third household selected for the survey.
The Household Questionnaire included the following modules:
- Household Listing
- Water and Sanitation
- Household Characteristics
- Insecticide Treated Nets
- Child Labour
- Salt Iodisation
The Questionnaire for Children under Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under five living in the households. In cases where the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caregiver was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules:
- Vitamin A
- Care of Illness
The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15–49 years living in the households, and included the following modules:
- Child Mortality
- Birth History
- Tetanus Toxoid
- Maternal and Newborn Health
- Sexual Behaviour
- HIV and AIDS
- Maternal Mortality
The Questionnaire for Individual Men was administered to men aged 15–49 in every third household selected for the survey and included the following modules:
- Sexual Behaviour
- HIV and AIDS
The questionnaires are based on the global MICS 3 model questionnaire. For this survey, the global questionnaires were customised for Malawi’s needs, translated into Chichewa and Tumbuka and were pre-tested during the month of June 2006. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data were entered on 20 microcomputers using the CSPro software. To ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS 3 project were adapted to the Malawi questionnaire and used throughout. Data entry began simultaneously in August 2006 and completed by the end of December 2006. Data were analysed using the SPSS software program and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample of respondents selected in the Malawi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
• Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc.). Standard error is the square root of the variance. The Taylor linearisation method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
• Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator.
• Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deff) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deff value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deff value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
• Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (p + 2.se or p – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 14 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national total, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Two of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 18 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. The first table shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculated, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. The remaining tables show the calculated sampling errors.
Note: Ses tables of sampling errors in Appendix C of the report.
MICS Programme Manager
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.