Human resources play an immense role to determine the level of development in all economies of the world. Low level of human resource development can be attributed to several factors like high growth rate of population, poverty, unemployment inequality, illiteracy and mortality etc. These factors mostly prevail in developing countries like ours. It is necessary to know in quantitative terms the number of people living in a country at a particular time and the rate at which they are growing i.e. the growth of population. Growing population has forward and backward linkages with the other economic dynamics particularly poverty and unemployment. Rising population is accompanied by a rise in the labor force of the community which leads the substantial chunk of population to unemployment. The rising population has serious implications on poverty also. Poverty can be defined as a social phenomenon in which a section of the society is unable to fulfill even its basic necessities of life. The present paper is an attempt to unveil the present status of population growth, poverty and unemployment in India. The statistical analysis of the data of population growth demonstrates that during the decade of 2001-2011, the urban population has increased more rapidly as compare to rural population. More or less, increase in urban population has been found more than twice as compare to rural population. Further during the study period it has been found that despite performing well on the front of poverty and unemployment reduction, still there is a high concentration of poor and unemployed across the union of India. So endeavor is entailed on the part of government to arrest the problem of population growth, poverty and unemployment.