This study explores whether social policy responses for orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana address the needs ofthis category of children. The objectives of social policies and legislation (such as the Constitution, the Children's Act of 2009, the National Guidelines on the Care ofaVC of2008, and the Botswana National Plan of Action for avc of2010-2016) in relation to social protection are analysed, and the availability, accessibility and adequacy of the HIV and AIDS social protection measures for avc, namely prevention of mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral therapy, and community home-based care and orphan food baskets, are described. The study argues that these social policy responses for avc are inadequate and do not comprehensively meet the needs of avc. There is an inadequate legal and policy framework, fragmentation of social protection provisions, inadequate minimum eligibility criteria, shortage of human resources, insufficient funding, lack of awareness, and the presence of stigma and discrimination. These present barriers to the availability, accessibility and adequacy of social protection provision to avc. The study recommends comprehensive social protection within the broader social policy for avc, to address some of the problems that have been highlighted. Such a policy needs to be based within a human rights based framework and developmentally or progressively achieved.