The Vanuatu Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2007 has the following primary objectives:
1. To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women both at national and sub-national (provincial and urban/rural) levels.
2. To furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards goals established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the goals of A World Fit for Children (WFFC) as a basis for future action.
3. To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems, and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The scope of Vanuatu 2007 MICS includes:
- Household information panel
- Household listing
- Water and sanitation
- Household characteristics
- Salt iodization
- Household nutrition
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER5
- Birth registration and early learning
- Child development
- Care of illness
- Children nutrition
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN
- Child mortality
- Tetanus toxoid
- Maternal and newborn health
- Security of tenure and durability of housing
- Women nutirition
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Health
United Nations Children's Fund
The sample for MICS Vanuatu - 2007 is a probability-based, stratified cluster sample of 3000 households. They were selected in 120 clusters, each of size 25 households. The sample was designed with the intention of providing reliable estimates for the key MICS indicators at the national level and also for urban and rural areas separately, as well as for the 6 Provinces of Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa, Tafea and Torba. Port Vila under Shefa Province and Luganville under Sanma province are the two major cities considered as two domains under the urban stratum. The Shefa and Sanma provinces mentioned here exclude these two cities of corresponding provinces and bear rural character. The entire areas of all other provinces are considered as rural. The sample was allocated to the provinces/cities and by urban-rural in an optimum fashion to secure enough sample cases in each domain for reliable estimates to be obtained. That is, independent samples for each domain (6 provinces and 2 cities) made it equivalent to 8 separate surveys to produce valid estimates for each domain simultaneously. National, and urban and rural estimates are obtained by combining these provincial data.
The sample frame was the enumeration areas (EA) that made up the 1999 Population Census of Vanuatu, which had been updated in the 2006 Agricultural Census. Primary sampling units, or PSUs, were defined as either single EA or combinations of EAs. Combining EA was necessary whenever an EA contained fewer than 25 households, because the cluster size to be interviewed was set at 25 households as mentioned above.
The sample was selected in two stages.
Detailed sampling procedure is available in "Section 2. Sample and Survey Methodology" of the final report.
Of the 2,963 households selected for the sample, 2,959 were found to be occupied. Among the occupied households, 2,632 were successfully interviewed with a household response rate of 89 percent. In the interviewed households, 3,261 eligible women (aged 15-49) were identified for interview and 2,692 were successfully interviewed, giving women response rate of 83 percent. Among the interviewed households, 1,741 under-five children were identified. Of them, mothers/caretakers of 1,634 children were successfully interviewed, yielding children response rate of 94 percent. The overall response rates of women and children were found to be 73 percent and 84 percent respectively.
The sample response rates vary to some extent by urban-rural areas and by provinces. Urban area shows higher response rate for household and children than those of rural area. However, there is little variation in women response rate between rural and urban area. The response rate varied widely among the provinces/urban domains. The household response rate ranges from 71 percent in Sanma to as high as 99 percent in Port Vila. Women's response rate varies from 76 percent in Malampa to 89 percent in Penama and Sanma. Children’s response rate vary in a narrow range among the provinces/domains, with 90 percent in Luganville to 97 percent in Sanma and Torba.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Ten master trainers were identified by the MoH those had some previous experience of fieldwork in health related programmes. These trainers were trained by the external consultant for three weeks including field-testing and field practice of the questionnaires for five successive times each followed by extensive discussion. A total of 55 enumerators were trained by the trainers in local language, Bislama, for another 3 weeks with field practice for 4 times in September, 2007. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques, contents of the questionnaires and mock interviews between trainees Bislama, to gain practice in asking questions. During the training period, trainees spent 8–10 days conducting practice interviews in and around Port Vila in both urban and rural settings. The data were collected by 6 teams comprising of one male/female supervisor, 5 female enumerators and a laboratory technician who is assigned to collect nutritional (biochemical) sample. The fieldwork began in November 01, 2007 and concluded in December 20, 2007. Revisits were carried out during 01-10 April, 2008 for the missing cases mainly in urban areas.
Three questionnaires were used in the survey: These were: 1) the Household Questionnaire, 2) the Questionnaire for Individual Women aged 15-49, and 3) the Questionnaire for Children under-five.
• Household Questionnaire: The Household Questionnaire was used to collect information about all de-jure household members, the household and the dwelling of each interviewed household. The respondent for this questionnaire was the head of household or other adult member who lives in the household and was capable of providing information as required in the questionnaire. The household questionnaire included modules for the household information panel, household listing form, education, water and sanitation, household characteristics, malaria prevention, salt iodization and nutrition information for household.
• Questionnaire for Individual Women: The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 living in each surveyed household. This questionnaire included the modules for the women's information panel, child mortality, tetanus toxoid, maternal and newborn health, marriage/union, security of tenure, contraceptive, HIV/AIDS and nutrition information for women.
• Questionnaire for Children Under-five: The Questionnaire for Children Under-five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under-5 years of age living in each surveyed household. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-5 children; in case, when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. This questionnaire included the modules for under-five child information panel, child development, birth registration and early learning, breastfeeding, care of illness, malaria and it’s prevention, immunization, anthropometry and nutrition information for children.
The last modules of all three MICS questionnaires were related to the additional nutrition component of the survey. The questionnaires were developed on the basis of the MICS-3 model questionnaires in English language and were translated into Vanuatu national language, Bislama, and back translation was done to ensure the accuracy of the translation. The questionnaires were pre-tested. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording of the questions, the response categories, and the key words.
In addition to administration of questionnaires, the survey teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content by UNICEF recommended salt testing kit and measured the weights (by Uniscale with 100 grams graduation, SECA) and heights (by SHORR board, Maryland, USA) of children of age under 5 years. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report.
Completed questionnaires were checked in the field by supervisors and were sent to Port Vila for processing. In Port Vila, data entry personnel checked each questionnaire again to make sure that it had been correctly completed and all parts are consistently filled-in.
Data were entered on 6 microcomputers by 6 data entry operators and 2 data entry supervisors using CSPro software under direct supervision of data manager. In order to ensure quality, all the questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed using CSPro software under the global MICS-3 project that was adapted to Vanuatu questionnaires and was reviewed by the NYHQ before data entry.
Data entry and processing began in November 10, 2007 and was completed in January 31, 2008, while revisit data were processed during 08-15 April, 2008. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, version 14 and the model syntax and tabulation plan developed by UNICEF for this purpose.
Non-response rate for the women age group 15-19 was quite high and, hence, a post survey adjustment was carried out for non-response by weighting through post-stratification.
Data that were available for the additional nutrition component of the survey during the processing of MICS data were processed with the MICS data. But after getting the laboratory results, all data are processed and analysed separately.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample of respondents selected in the Vanuatu Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
- Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
- Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator
- Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
- Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (p + 2.se or p – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 14 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national total, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. These results are available in Appendix C of the final report.
MICS Programme Manager
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.