The health and wealth of a nation and its potential to develop and grow depend on its ability to feed its people. To help ensure that food will remain available to those who need it, there is nothing more important to give priority to than agriculture. Accurate and timely statistics about the basic produce and supplies of agriculture are essential to assess the agricultural situation. To help policy maker's deal with the fundamental challenge they are faced within the agricultural sector of the economy and develop measures and policies to maintain food security, there should be a continuous provision of statistics. The collection of reliable, comprehensive and timely data on agriculture is thus required for the above purposes. In this perspective, the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has endeavored to generate agricultural data for policy makers and other users. The general objective of CSA's annual Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS) is to collect basic quantitative information on the country's agriculture that is considered essential for development planning, socio-economic policy formulation, food security, etc. The AgSS is composed of four components: Crop production forecast survey, Main (“Meher”) season survey, Livestock survey, and survey of the “Belg” season crop area and production.
The specific objectives of the Main (“Meher”) season area and production survey are:
- To estimate the total cultivated land area, production and yield per hectare of major crops (temporary).
- To estimate the total farm inputs applied area and quantity of inputs applied by type for major temporary and permanent crops.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural household/ Holder/ Crop
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of annual Agricultural Sample Survey includes:
- Area identification and characteristics of agricultural holder's. This included household's geographic locations, holder's age, holder's sex and educational status.
- List of fields and agricultural practices for pure stand and mixed crops.
- List of permanent crops and number of tress.
- Records of quantity of improved seed, fertilizers and information on crop protection. -Records of results of area measurements.
- List and selection of fields for crop cutting and details of record of crop cutting.
an enumeration area in the rural parts of the country is a locality that is, in most of the cases less than, and only in some cases equal to a farmers’ association in geographical area and usually consists of 150-200 households.
a) a one person household, that is a person who makes provisions for his own living with out combining with any other person to form part of a multi- person household or b) a multi-person household, that is, a group of two or more persons who live together and make common provisions for food and other essentials of living. The persons in the group may pool their incomes and have a common budget to a greater or lesser extent. They may be related or unrelated persons or a combination of both. These persons are taken as members of the household.
The growing of crops and/or raising of animals for own consumption and /or sale.
a household is considered an agricultural household when at least one member of the household is engaged in growing crops and/or raising livestock in private or in combination with others.
a holding is all the land and /or livestock kept, which is used wholly or partly for agricultural production and is operated as one legal entity by one person alone, or with others with out regard to management, organization, size or location.
a holder is a person who exercises management control over the operation of the agricultural holding and makes the major decision regarding the utilization of the available resources.
a parcel of holding is any piece of land entirely surrounded by land and/or water and/or road and/or forest etc., which is not part of the holding. It may consist of one or more cadastral units, plots or fields adjacent to each other.
a field is defined as any plot of land which is a parcel or part of a parcel under the same or mixed crops or any other form of private holding.
includes cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, root crops, fruits coffee, Enset, Chat, hops, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, etc produced for food, making drinks, stimulation and making fabrics or clothing.
the process of growing and harvesting of the above crops for own consumption and/or sale.
Annual/temporary crops are crops, which are grown in less than a year’s time, sometimes only a few months with an objective to sow or replant again for additional production following the current harvest. Continuously grown crops planted in rotation are also considered as temporary crops since each is harvested and destroyed by ploughing in preparation for each successive crop.
Permanent (Perennial) Crops
Crops, which are grown and occupy land for a long period of time, not requiring replanting for several years after each harvest, are considered as permanent crops. All fruit trees (i.e. oranges, mandarin, bananas, etc) and trees for beverages (i.e. coffee, tea, hops (Gesho), etc) are considered permanent crops but meadows and pastures are excluded.
Meher (Main) Season Crop
any temporary crop harvested between Meskerm (September) and Yekatit (February) is considered as meher season crop.
Belg Season Crop
any temporary crop harvested between the months of Megabit (March) and Nehase (August) is considered to be Belg Season Crop.
The survey covered all sedentary rural agricultural population in all regions of the country except urban and nomadic areas which were not included in the survey.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The 2000/2001 (1993 E.C) Meher season agricultural sample survey covered the rural part of the country except three zones in Afar regional state and six zones in Somalie regional state that are predominantly nomadic. A two-stage stratified sample design was used to select the sample. Each zones/special wereda was adopted as stratum for which major findings of the survey are reported except the four regions; namely, Gambella, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa which were considered as strata/reporting levels. The primary sampling units (PSUs) were enumeration areas (EAs) and agricultural households were the secondary sampling units. The survey questionnaires were administered to all agricultural holders within the sample households. A fixed number of sample EAs were determined for each stratum/reporting level based on precision of major estimates and cost considerations. Within each stratum EAs were selected using probability proportional to size systematic sampling; size being total number of agricultural households in the EAs as obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. From each sample EA, 40 agricultural households were systematically selected for the annual agricultural sample survey from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the field work of the annual agricultural survey. Of the forty agricultural households, the first twenty-five were used for obtaining information on area under crops, Meher and Beleg season production of crops, land use, agricultural practices, crop damage, and quantity of agricultural households sampled in each of the selected EAs, data on crop cutting were collected for only the fifteen households (11th - 25th households selected). A total of 1,430 EAs were selected for the survey. However, 8 EAs were closed for various reasons beyond the control of the Authority and the survey succeeded in covering 1422 (99.44%) EAs. Within respect to ultimate sampling units, for the Meher season agricultural sample survey, it was planned to cover 35,750 agricultural households.
Note: Distribution of the number of sampling units sampled and covered by strata is given in Appendix I of the 2000-2001 annual Agricultural Sample Survey report which is provided as external resource.
A total of 1,430 EAs were selected for the survey. However, 8 EAs were closed for various reasons beyond the control of the Authority and the survey succeeded in covering 1422 (99.44%) EAs. Within respect to ultimate sampling units, for the Meher season agricultural sample survey, it was planned to cover 35,750 agricultural households. The response rate was found to be 99.14%.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
All the 22 branch statistical offices of the CSA participated in the survey undertaking, especially in organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staffs to their respective sites of assignment, in supervising the data collection, and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logical aspect of the survey within their areas of assignment. In the data collection of the survey, a total of 1558 enumerators and 336 field supervisors were involved with an average supervisor-enumerators ratio of 1 to 5. To accomplish the data collection operation, all the enumerators were supplied with the necessary survey equipment at the completion of the training. To assist the data collection activities in deployment, supervision and retrieval of completed questionnaires, a total of 143 four-wheel vehicles were used.
Training of Field Staff:
The field staff training program was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted of training of staff form the head office, branch statistical office heads and senior field supervisors. This training was given for a period of one week at CSA's headquarters in Addis Ababa. Many of these personnel trained in the first stage were assigned to conduct similar training for field supervisors and enumerators for fifteen days in all the twenty-two CSA branch statistical offices which are distributed all over the country. During this second stage of training, the field staff were given detailed classroom instruction on the objectives and uses of the AgSS, concepts and definitions of terms used, the method of area measurements, method of crop cutting, correct interviewing procedures, ..etc. The training of the enumerators and supervisors also included field practice to reinforce the undertaking of the concepts, definitions and theories discussed in the classroom with regard to field measurement and crop cutting methods.
Method of Data Collection:
In the 2000-2001 AgSS data on area and production were recorded on questionnaires using both subjective and objective enumeration methods. Information on agricultural practices (application of pesticides and use of irrigation) were collected subjectively by interviewing the holders and data on area under crops, yield, and application of fertilizers and use of seeds were collected by performing objective measurements in each sampled household. The objective measurement procedures for area measurement were carried out for the twenty-five selected agricultural households from each sampled EA. This required that all separate fields by land area utilization be physically measured using compass and measuring tape. In addition, for all fields under temporary crops of each holder of the last fifteen (11th-25th) sampled households, each was classified by type of crop and for selected major crops, a field was randomly selected for each crop for crop cutting to be performed. Crop cutting procedures consist of demarcation of a sixteen square meter plot randomly located in the selected field for which the crop in the field is to be harvested. Following the field enumerator's harvest of the crop-cutting plot and threshing, the crop is stored in bags with identification information (i.e. name of the crop, holder's number and parcel and field numbers). The crop placed in the bag is weighed immediately (green weight) after threshing, and weighted again after two weeks of drying to simulate normal holder harvesting and drying practices. The green and dry weights are recoded on the respective forms.
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 2000-2001 annual Agricultural Sample Survey used structured questionnaires to collect agricultural information from selected sample households.
Lists of forms in the questionnaires:
- AgSS Form 93/0: Used to list all households and agricultural holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 93/1: Used to list selected households and agricultural holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 93/3A: Used to list fields and agricultural practices only pure stand temporary and permanent crops, list of fields and agricultural practices for mixed crops, other land use, quantity of improved and local seeds by type of crop and type and quantity of crop protection chemicals.
- AgSS Form 93/4A: Used to collect results of area measurement.
- AgSS Form 93/5: Used to list fields for selecting fields for crop cuttings and collect information about details of crop cutting.
Note: The questionnaires are presented in the Appendix IV of the 2000-2001 Agricultural Sample Survey Volume I report which is provided as external resource.
Editing, Coding and Verification:
In order to insure the quality of the collected survey data an editing, coding and verification instruction manual was prepared and printed. Then 23 editors-coders and 22 verifiers were trained for two days in the editing, coding and verification operation using the aforementioned manual as a reference and teaching aid. The completed questionnaires were edited, coded and later verified on a 100% basis before the questionnaires were passed over to the data entry unit. The editing, coding and verification exercise of all questionnaires was completed in about 30 days.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
Before starting data entry, professional staff of Agricultural Statistics Department prepared edit specifications to use on personal computers utilizing the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software for data consistency checking purposes. The data on the coded questionnaires were then entered into personal computers using IMPS software. The data were then checked and cleaned using the edit specification prepared earlier for this purpose. The data entry operation involved about 31 data encoders and it took 28 days to complete the job. Finally, tabulation was done on personal computers to produce results as indicated in the tabulation plan.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures of parameters of interest (total and ratio) and their sampling error is presented in Appendix II of the 2000-2001 annual Agricultural Sample Survey report which is provided as external resource.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )
The following statement must be used as citation: "Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA). Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS 2000-2001) "
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-AgSS-2000-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.