The production and utilization of food crops is a necessity to humanity. Agriculture, as a primary activity directly connected to food availability, plays a crucial role in responding to this necessity. Agriculture is presumed to be the engine for economic development in developing countries and more oriented to rural development to ensure the wellbeing of the population. Consequently the efforts of government and non - government organizations have been poured on to it besides the farmers' to realize food security. Adverse conditions emanating from natural disasters and man made problems such as the over exploitation of land generate shocks to agriculture that instigate crises related to food availability. These and other effects necessitate a priority in scrutinizing the performance of agriculture in order to combat food crises. Accurate and timely statistics are a requisite to check, appraise and gauge the agricultural situation. They are used to inform data users of the nature of agriculture and changes taking place in it and trigger policy intervention. To this end, the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been furnishing statistical information on the country's agriculture since 1980-1981. As part of this task the 2005-2006 (1998 E.C) Agricultural Sample Survey was conducted to provide data on crop area and production of crops within the private peasant holdings for Main (“Meher”) Season of the cited year.
The general objective of CSA's Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS) is to collect basic quantitative information on the country's agriculture that is essential for planning, policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation of mainly food security and other agricultural activities.
The specific objectives of Main (“Meher”) Season Post Harvest Survey are:
- To estimate the total cultivated area, production and yield of crops and provide estimates of land use area and quantity of agricultural inputs.
- To estimate the total volume of inputs used, inputs applied area and number of holders using inputs.
- To estimate the total cultivated area and other forms of land use.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural household/ Holder/ Crop
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of annual Agricultural Sample Survey included:
- Area identification and characteristics of agricultural holder's. This included household's geographic locations, holder's age, holder's sex and educational status.
- List of fields and agricultural practices for pure stand and mixed crops.
- List of permanent crops and number of tress.
- Records of quantity of improved seed, fertilizers and information on crop protection.
- Records of results of area measurements.
- List and selection of fields for crop cutting and details of record of crop cutting.
The 2005-2006 annual Agricultural Sample Survey covered the entire rural parts of the country except all zones of Gambella region, and the non-sedentary population of three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali regions.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The list containing EAs of all regions and their respective agricultural households obtained from the 2001/02 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) was used as the sampling frame in order to select the primary sampling units (EAs). Consequently, all sample EAs were selected from this frame based on the design proposed for the survey. Resettlement localities, on the other hand, are sub-samples of the list of all resettlements localities obtained from each region. The second stage sampling units, households, were selected from a fresh list of households that were prepared for each EA/ resettlement localities at the beginning of the survey.
In order to select the sample a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was implemented. Enumeration areas (EAs) /resettlement locality were taken to be the primary sampling units (PSUs) and the secondary sampling units (SSUs) were agricultural households. In 2005-2006, unlike the years before, in order to obtain a fairly representative number of extension program participant households the CSA categorized the listed agricultural households in each EAs/resettlement area into two strata, i.e. households that are and that are not participants of extension program. The stratification was done on the basis of the six major crops where by the extension program is mostly exercised in the country. The crops are maize, teff, wheat, barley, sorghum and finger millet. The sample size for the 2005-2006 agricultural sample survey was determined by taking into account of both the required level of precision for the most important estimates within each domain and the amount of resources allocated to the survey. In order to reduce non-sampling errors manageability of the survey in terms of quality and operational control was also in addition considered. Except Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, where each region as a whole was taken to be the domain of estimation; each zone of a region / special wereda was adopted as a stratum for which major findings of the survey are reported. Moreover, values about the 2005-2006 cultivated areas of crops and the expected amount of production for Gambella region is also provided. However, it is important to note that the values are not obtained from the survey but they are projections from the results of the 2003/04 annual Crop Production Forecast Sample Survey.
Enumeration areas/resettlement localities from each stratum were selected systematically using probability proportional to size sampling technique; size being number of agricultural households. The sizes for EAs were obtained from the 1994 Population & Housing Census and adjusted for the sub-sampling effect. Sizes for resettlement localities on the other hand were obtained from the 2004 listings of resettlement localities. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 30 agricultural households within each sample EA/resettlement locality were selected systematically. Twenty of the households were selected from non extension participant agricultural households while the rest 10 households were selected from extension participant agricultural households.
Note: Distribution of sampling units planned and covered EAs and resettlement localities) by stratum is presented in Appendix III of 2005-2006 Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume I report.
A total of 2,024 enumeration areas (EAs) and 250 resettlement localities were selected to be covered in the survey. However, due to various reasons that are beyond control, in 12 EAs and 1 resettlement locality the survey could not be successful and hence interrupted. Thus, all in all the survey succeeded to cover 2,012 EAs and 249 resettlement localities (99.43 %) throughout the regions.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Organization of field work:
To successfully conduct the survey a well executed fieldwork arrangement was necessary. In recognition of this, the organization of fieldwork has been entrusted to the Department of Field Operations that liaises between the Head Office and the 25 Branch Statistical Offices spread across the regions. All Branch Offices took part in the survey execution especially in recruiting the enumerators, organizing the 2nd stage training, assigning the field staff to their sites of enumeration, supervising the data collection and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the Head Office for data processing. The Branch Offices were also responsible in administering the financial and logistic aspects of the survey within their areas of operation. A total of 2388 enumerators, 455 field supervisors, 25 coordinators and 50 statisticians were involved in the data collection where on the average one supervisor was assigned to five enumeration areas for supervision of data collection. All the enumerators were supplied with the necessary survey equipment after the completion of the training to ensure the smooth operation of the survey. To facilitate the data collection activities, a total of 205 four-wheel drive vehicles were used.
Training of field staff:
The execution of a survey and quality of data acquired from the survey highly depend on the type of training given to the enumerators and supervisors and the consequent understanding of the tasks to be performed and the standard procedures to be followed by the enumerators and supervisors in the survey undertaking. The quality and completeness of data is ensured when the training meets its objective of producing responsible and fervent enumerators and supervisors. In light of this point, the training was given to the field staff in two stages. The first stage training, which took place at the Head Quarters of CSA and lasted 10 days targeted staff from the Head Office, and senior field supervisors from Branch Statistical Offices. The staff that took part in the first stage training was then assigned to conduct similar training for the enumerators and other supervisors for fifteen days in all the twenty- five Branch Statistical Offices distributed across the country. In the training the field staff was given detailed classroom instruction on how to collect data, method of area measurement, method of crop cutting, interviewing procedures, etc. The training also included field practice to reinforce the understanding of concepts, definitions and theories discussed in the classroom with regard to field measurement, crop cutting and interviewing methods.
Method of data collection:
The agricultural data for the year 2005/06(1998 E.C) was collected from sedentary rural peasant households by interviewing the selected agricultural holders and physically measuring their fields and performing crop cutting procedures to gather data on crop yields and other items of interest. The data obtained were recorded in various forms designed for this purpose. Instruments like measuring tape; compass, kitchen balance, scientific calculators and others were used during data collection for a timely and smooth acquisition of accurate data. The procedures for measuring area under crop and area of non - crop fields operated by the holders were performed for the 25 selected households from each sampled E.A. using measuring tapes and compasses. All fields under major temporary crops of each holder of the fifteen randomly selected households of the 25 sample households were classified by crop type and a crop field was randomly selected from each crop type for crop cutting to be performed. The crop cutting procedure consists of demarcation of a four meter by four meter plot randomly located in the selected field where the crop in the demarcated plot is to be harvested. Following the enumerator's harvest of the crop demarcated and threshing, the crop is kept in bags with identification information (i.e. holder's number, parcel and field numbers). The crop stored in the bag is weighed immediately (green weight) after threshing and weighed again after two weeks of drying to simulate normal holder harvesting and drying practices. Both the green and dry weights are recorded on the respective forms.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 2005-2006 annual Agricultural Sample Survey used structured questionnaires to collect agricultural information from selected sample households.
List of forms in the questionnaires:
- AgSS Form 98/0: It contains forms that used to list all households in the sample areas.
- AgSS Form 98/1: It contains forms that used to list selected households in the sample areas.
- AgSS Form 98/2A: It contains forms that used to collect information about crops, results of area measurements covered by crops and other land uses.
- AgSS Form 98/2B: It contains forms that used to collect information about miscellaneous questions for the holders.
- AgSS Form 98/4: It contains forms that used to collect information about list of temporary crop fields for selecting crop cutting plots.
- AgSS Form 98/5: It contains forms that used to collect information about list of temporary crop cutting results.
Note: The questionnaires are presented in the Appendix III of the 2005-2006 Agricultural Sample Survey report, Volume I which is provided as external resource.
Editing, Coding and Verification:
Statistical data editing plays an important role in ensuring the quality of the collected survey data. It minimizes the effects of errors introduced while collecting data in the field, hence the need for data editing, coding and verification. Although coding and editing are done by the enumerators and supervisors in the field, respectively, verification of this task is done at the Head Office. An editing, coding and verification instruction manual was prepared and reproduced for this purpose. Then 55 editors-coders and verifiers were trained for two days in editing, coding and verification using the aforementioned manual as a reference and teaching aid. The completed questionnaires were edited, coded and later verified on a 100 % basis before the questionnaires were passed over to the data entry unit. The editing, coding and verification exercise of all questionnaires took 25 days.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
Before data entry, the Natural Resources and Agricultural Statistics Department prepared edit specification for the survey for use on personal computers for data consistency checking purposes. The data on the edited and coded questionnaires were then entered into personal computers. The data were then checked and cleaned using the edit specifications prepared earlier for this purpose. The data entry operation involved about 80 data encoders and it took 60 days to finish the job. Finally, summarization of the data was done on personal computers to produce statistical tables as per the tabulation plan.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedure of totals, ratios, sampling error and the measurement of precision of estimates (CV) are given in Appendix I and II of 2005-2006 Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume I report which is provided as external resource.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )
The following statement must be used as citation: "Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA). Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS2005-2006) "
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from "DDI-ETH-CSA-AgSS-2005-1.1" DDI, which was done by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency.