Considering the dynamic and sensitive nature of the sector and also in response to the demands of different data users, the CSA had launched Urban Employment Unemployment Survey program since 2003. The Agency conducted two surveys in two rounds, that is, October 2003 and April 2004. The current Urban Employment and Unemployment Survey, which was conducted from April 10 - April 24, 2006 is the third series.
Labour force surveys are one of the most important sources of data for assessing the role of the population of the country in the economic and social development process. These surveys provide data on the main characteristics of the work force engaged or available to be engaged in productive activities during a given period and its distribution in the various sectors of the economy. It is also useful to indicate the extent of available and unutilized human resources that must be absorbed by the national economy to ensure full employment and economic well being of the population. Moreover, it further provides an input for assessing the meeting of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the country's poverty reduction strategy framework (PASDEP-Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty). The other broad objective of statistics on the labour force is for the measurement of relationship between employment, income and other social and economic characteristics of the economically active population for the purpose of formulating, monitoring and evaluation of employment policy and programs. Seasonal and other variations and changes over time in the size and characteristics of the employment and unemployment can be monitored using up-to-date information from labour force surveys.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been providing labour force and related data at different levels and with varying content details. These include the 1976 Addis Ababa Manpower and Housing Sample Survey, the 1978 Survey on Population and Housing Characteristics of Seventeen Major Towns, the 1980/81 and 1987/88 Rural Labour Force Surveys, and the 1984 & 1994 Population and Housing Census. A comprehensive national labour force data representing both urban and rural areas was also provided based on the 1999 and 2005 Labour Force Surveys. The 1996 and 2002 Surveys of Informal Sector and most of the household surveys also provide limited data on the area. Moreover, some information can be derived from small, large and medium scale establishment surveys.
Considering the dynamic and sensitive nature of the sector and also in response to the demands of different data users, the CSA had launched a Bi-annual Employment Unemployment Survey program starting from October 2003 GC. In this way, the Agency had conducted two rounds in October 2003 and April 2004 and the results were published in Statistical Bulletin 301 and 319. The 2005 Labour Force Survey (LFS) had been conducted to update the 1999 National Labour force survey. Here after, based on data need assessment it was decided to undertake the continuous survey annually instead of bi-annually.
Objectives of the survey
The Employment and Unemployment Survey program was designed to provide statistical data on the size and characteristics of the economically active and the non-active population of the country on continuous basis. The data will be useful for policy makers, planners, researchers, and other institutions and individuals engaged in the design, implementation and monitoring of human resource development projects and the performance of the economy.
The specific objectives of this survey were to:
- Up date data on the size of work force that is available to participate in production process;
- Determine the status and rate of economic participation of different sub-groups of the population;
- Identify those who are actually contributing to the economic development (employed) and those out of the sphere;
- Determine the size and rate of unemployed population;
- Provide data on the structure of the working population;
- Obtain information about earnings from paid employment;
- Identify the distribution of employed population in the formal/informal sector of the economy; and
- Generate time series data to trace changes over time.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual aged 10 years and above
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of Urban Employment Unemployment Survey includes:
- Household: Area identification and demographic characteristics of the selected households.
- Individual aged 10 and above: Economic activities during the last 7 days, economic activities during the last 12 months and unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons.
The survey is mainly aimed at providing information on the economic characteristics of the population aged 10 years and over, i.e., their activity status, employment, and unemployment situation. It has also covered detailed socio-demographic background variables such as age, sex, relationship to the head of household, educational status, and training, marital status.
The 2006 Urban Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey covered only urban parts of the country. Except three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali regions, where the residents are pastoralists, all urban centers of the country were considered in this survey.
All households in the selected samples, except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Sample Design and Sample Size:
Information from the listing of the 2004 Urban Economic Establishment Census was utilized to develop the sampling frame for the 2006 Urban Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey. It was by taking into account of cost and precision of major variables that determination of sample size was achieved. Moreover, in order to judge precisions of major variables, the 1999 Labor Force Survey result was the main source of information that was taken into consideration.
Except Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, where all urban centers of the domain were incorporated in the survey, in other domains a three stage stratified cluster sample design was adopted to select the samples from each domain. The primary sampling units (PSU's) were urban centers selected systematically using probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 Urban Economic Establishment Census. From each selected urban centers enumeration areas (EA's) were selected as a second-stage sampling unit (SSU). The selection of the SSU's was also done using probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 Urban Economic Establishment Census. For each sampled EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey. Thirty households from each sample EA were selected at the third stage. The survey questionnaire was finally administered to those thirty households selected at the last stage.
The selection scheme for Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa was similar to the case explained above. However, in these three domains instead of a three-stage design a two-stage stratified cluster sample design with enumeration areas as PSU and households (from the fresh list) as secondary sampling unit was used.
Note: Distribution of sampling units (planned and covered) by domain (reporting level) is given in Summary Table 2.1 of the 2006 Urban Employment Unemployment Survey report.
As regards the response rate of the survey, a total of 99 urban centers were selected and incorporated into the survey. To be covered by the survey, 527 enumeration areas was initially selected, and the survey could successfully be carried out in 525 (99.62%) out of all the 527 of the EA’s. The total number of expected households that were to be interviewed was 15,810; however, due to different reasons 235 sample households were not interviewed. As a result only 15,575 households were actually covered by the survey, which made the ultimate response rate of the survey 98.51 %.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff
Like any other survey, the training program of enumerators, supervisors and other field office staff was conducted in two stages. The first stage refreshment training was conducted at the head quarters of the CSA, in Addis Ababa for about seven days. The participants were selected from professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office statisticians and coordinators, who were supposed to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the Branch Statistical Offices. The training was guided by an enumerator and supervisor manual, which consists of detailed explanation of concepts, ideas and instructions on how to fill each entry in the questionnaire.
The training at the branch office, which lasted for about seven days, consisted of theoretical discussions on concepts, definitions, and techniques of completing the questionnaire as well as mock interview and practical field practice interview of households and/or household members. The objectives of mock and practical interviewing of households were twofold. First, it enabled to assess how well the classroom theoretical discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same message to the enumerators and the supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty, which would likely be encountered during actual fieldwork.
Organization of the Fieldwork
In order to carry out the survey with the desired level of quality, there was a need to organize a large staff that performs the various survey activities. The 25 Branch Statistical Offices of the Agency carried out the data collection operation. These offices have permanent and contract enumerators stationed in the selected enumeration areas. The data collection operation of the survey involved a total of about 287 enumerators and about 59 field supervisors with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1: 5.
The interviews have been done by going from house-to-house. The respondent from whom the information collected was the head of the household or other responsible household member. Most of the enumerators were assigned to 1-2 sampled enumeration areas where data collection was carried out in phases. That is, after completing the data collection in the selected enumeration area enumerators were shifted to another nearest sample sites to carry out the same exercise if they are needed to do so. Interpreters were made available in cases where there is difficulty to converse with the respondent's dialect. Data collection took place between April 10 and April 24/2006.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Almost similar questionnaire that were used for the first and second rounds is administered in this survey.
The questionnaire was organized into five sections:
Section - 1: Area identification of the selected household: this section dealt with area identification of respondents such as region, zone, wereda, etc.,
Section - 2: Demographic characteristics of household: it consisted of the general socio-demographic characteristics of the population such as age, sex, education, status & types of training and marital status.
Section - 3: Productive activities during the last seven days: this section dealt with the status and characteristics of employed persons such as hours of work, occupation, industry, employment status, and earnings from paid employment.
Section - 4: Unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons: the section focused on the size and characteristics of the unemployed population.
Section - 5: Economic activity during the last six months: this section covered the usual economic activity status, number of weeks of employment /unemployment and reasons for not usually working.
The questionnaire used in the field for data collection purpose was prepared in Amharic language. Both Amharic and English versions of the questionnaires are provided as external resource.
Data Editing, Coding and Verification:
The filled-in questionnaires that were retrieved from the field were first subjected to manual editing and coding. During the fieldwork the field supervisors, Statisticians and the heads of branch statistical offices have checked the filled-in questionnaires and carried out some editing. However, the major editing and coding operation was carried out at the head office. All the edited questionnaires were again fully verified and checked for consistency before they were submitted to the data entry. After the data was entered, it was again verified using the computer.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
Using the computer edit specification prepared earlier for this purpose, the entered data were checked for consistencies and then computer editing or data cleaning was made by referring back to the filled-in questionnaire. This is an important part of data processing operation in attaining the required level of data quality. Consistency checks and re-checks were also made based on tabulation results. Computer programs used in data entry, machine editing and tabulation were prepared using the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS).
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures of total, ratio and sampling errors are given in Appendix III of the 2006 Urban Employment Unemployment Survey report.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
The following statement must be used as citation:
"Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA). Urban Employment Unemployment Survey 2006 (UEUS 2006)"
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from "DDI-ETH-CSA-UEUS-2006-v1.1" DDI, which was done by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency.