Considering the development process of the country and dynamic nature of the sectors and fulfilling the demands of different data users, the CSA had launched Urban Employment Unemployment Survey program since 2003. The Agency conducted four surveys in four rounds, that is, October 2003, April 2004, April 2006 and May 2009. The results of these surveys were published in statistical and analytical bulletin number 301, 319, 373,469, 477 and 499. The 2011 Urban Employment and Unemployment Survey, which was conducted from March 15 - March 30, 2011 is the six series. Unlike the previous surveys, the May 2009, May 2010 and the current survey of March 2011 have collected information from selected major towns with population size 100,000 and above including regional capitals.
Statistical information on all aspects of the population is vital for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of economic and social development plan and policy issues. Labour force survey is one of the most important sources of data for assessing the role of the population of the country in the economic and social development process. It is useful to indicate the extent of available and unutilized human resources that must be absorbed by the national economy to ensure full employment and economic well being of the population. Statistics on the labour force further present the measurement of economic activity status and its relationship to other social and economic characteristics of the population. Seasonal and other variations as well as changes over time in the size and characteristics of employed and unemployed populations that can be monitored using up-to-date information from labour force surveys. It serves as an input for assessing the meeting of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Furthermore, labour force datais also used as a springboard for monitoring and evaluation of the five years growth and transformation plan of a country.
Despite the significance of the labopur force data, the availability of reliable and timely labour force data were inadequate. The lack of reliable and timely data on different aspects of the population hinders the monitoring and evaluation of changes of developmental activities.
In order to fill the gap in data requirement for the purpose of socio-economic development planning, monitoring and evaluation, the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been providing labour force and related data at different levels with various contents and details. These include the 1976 Addis Ababa Manpower and Housing Sample Survey, the 1978 Survey on Population and Housing Characteristics of Seventeen Major Towns, the 1980/81 and 1987/88 Rural Labour Force Surveys (RLFS). Also, the 1984, 1994 and 2007 Population and Housing Censuses and the 1999 and 2005 National Labour Force Surveys provided a comprehensive national labour force data representing both urban and rural areas.
The survey results mainly provide data on the main characteristics of employed and unemployed population, that is, the work force engaged or available to be engaged in the production of economic goods and services and its distribution in the various sectors of the economy during a given reference period.
In addition, data on economic activities of children were also collected to measure child labour in urban areas. For this purpose, the former minimum age limit 10 years was lower down to 5 years since May 2009. Therefore, the data in this survey were collected from those persons aged five years and over. However, for the purpose of measuring the economic activity status based on Ethiopian situation, the lower age limit was fixed in to ten years. This is because children in rural and urban areas used to work at their early age such as collection of fire wood, looking after cattle, shoeshine, street vendor, petty trading…etc. Thus, the May 2011 Urban Employment and Unemployment Survey statistical report is mainly aimed at provide information on the economic characteristics of the population aged ten years and over.
Furthermore, the 2011 UEUS provide data on employment on the informal sector, their spatial distribution and problem in the sector.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual aged 10 years and above
Version 1.0: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of Urban Employment Unemployment Survey includes:
- Household: Area identification and demographic characteristics of the selected households.
- Individual aged 5 and above: Economic activities during the last 7 days, economic activities during the last 12 months and unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons.
The 2011 Urban Employment and Unemployment Survey (UEUS) covered all urban parts of the country except three zones of Afar, Six zones of Somali, where the residents are pastoralists.
The survey follows household approach and covers households residing in conventional households and thus, population residing in the collective quarters such as universities/colleges, hotel/hostel, monasteries and homeless population etc., are not covered by this survey.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The list of households obtained from the 2007 population and housing census is used to select EAs. A fresh list of households from each EA was prepared at the beginning of the survey period. The list was then used as a frame in order to select 30 households from sample EAs.
For the purpose of the survey the country was divided into two broad categories. That is major urban center and other urban center categories.
Category I:- Major urban centers:- In this category all regional capitals and five other major urban centers that have a high population size as compared to others were included. Each urban center in this category was considered as a reporting level. The category has a total of 16 reporting levels. In this category, in order to select the sample, a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was implemented. The primary sampling units were EAs of each reporting level. From each sample EA 30 households were then selected as a Second Stage Unit (SSU).
Category II:- Other urban centers: Urban centers in the country other than those under category I were grouped into this category. A domain of other urban centers is formed for each region. Consequently 8 reporting levels were formed in this category. Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa do not have urban centers other than that grouped in category I. Hence, no domain was formed for these regions under this category.
A stratified three stage cluster sample design was also adopted to select samples from this category. The primary sampling units were urban centers and the second stage sampling units were EAs. From each EA 30 households were selected at the third stage and the survey questionnaires administered for all of them.
It was initially planned to cover 660 EAs and 19,800 households in the survey, but ultimately 100% of EAs and 99.68% of households were successfully covered.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff
The training program of enumerators, supervisors and other field office staff was conducted in two stages. The first stage training of trainers was conducted at the head quarters of the Central Statistical Agency (CSA), in Addis Ababa for five days including half day field practice. The participants were selected from professionals and associate professionals with long time experiences, branch office statisticians and coordinators who were supposed to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the branch statistical offices of CSA. The training was guided by an enumerator and supervisor manuals, which consists of detailed explanation of concepts, ideas and instructions on how to fill each entry in the questionnaire.
The second stage training was undertaken at the CSA branch offices. The trainers were those who were trained at the head office and they have conducted similar training for enumerators and field supervisors for ten days. The training consisted of theoretical classroom discussions on concepts, definitions and techniques of completing the questionnaire as well as mock interview. The class discussions were intended to exchange experiences among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions that need more care and attention. There was also one day field practice for interviewing of the households and/or household members. The objectives of mock and practical interviewing of households were twofold. First, it enabled to assess how well the classroom theoretical discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same message to the enumerators and the supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty, which would likely be encountered during actual fieldwork.
Organization of the Fieldwork
In order to carry out this survey with the desired level of quality, there was a need to organize a large staff that performs the various survey activities. The 25 Branch Statistical Offices of the Agency carried out the data collection operation. These offices have permanent and contract enumerators stationed in the selected enumeration areas. The data collection operation of the survey involved a total of about 695 enumerators, 48 coordinators and 170 field supervisors with an average supervisor to enumerator ratio of 1: 4.
The interviews have been done by canvassing from house-to-house. Information was collected from the head of the household or from other responsible household member. The enumerators were assigned to one sampled enumeration area, where he/she could easily converse with the respondent's dialect. However, in some cases whenever enumerator faces difficulty to converse with the respondent's dialect interpreters were used. Data collection from the field took place from 15 March - 30 March 2011.
During the survey data collection operation, close and regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. Immediately after the commencement of the data collection exercise the supervisors had made spot checking, close supervision, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires to ensure that the data collection activities are taking place according to the given instruction. The branch statistical office heads, coordinators and statisticians were also made supervision of the data collection operation. Moreover, senior staff members from the CSA head office made field supervision activities in seven branches for a week at different towns.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The survey questionnaire is organized into six sections;
Section - 1: Area identification of the selected household: this section deals with area identification of respondents such as region, zone, wereda, etc.
Section - 2: Particulars of household members: it consists of the general socio-demographic characteristics of the population such as age, sex, educational status, types of training and marital status.
Section - 3: Economic activity during the last seven days: this section deal with whether persons were engaged in productive activities or not during the last seven days prior to date of interview, the status and characteristics of employed persons such as occupation, industry, employment status, hours of work, employment sector /formal and informal employment/ and earnings from paid employment.
Section - 4: Unemployment rate and characteristics of unemployed persons: this section focuses on the size, distribution and characteristics of the unemployed population and unemployment rate only for those aged 10 years and over.
Section - 5: Economic activity during the last six months: this section contains information on the economic activity status of the population in the long reference period or during the last six months.
Section - 6: Economic activity of children aged 5-17 years: this section consists of information on the participation of children aged 5-17 years in the economic activities, whether attending education, reason for not attending education…etc.
The filled-in questionnaires that were retrieved from the field were first subjected to manual editing and coding. During the fieldwork the field supervisors and the heads of branch statistical offices have checked the filled-in questionnaires and carried out some editing. However, the major editing and coding operation was carried out at the head office. All the edited questionnaires were again fully verified and checked for consistency before they were submitted to the data entry by the subject matter experts.
Using the computer edit specifications prepared earlier for this purpose, the entered data were checked for consistencies and then computer editing or data cleaning was made by referring back to the filled-in questionnaire. This is an important part of data processing operation in attaining the required level of data quality. Consistency checks and re-checks were also made based on frequency and tabulation results. This was done by senior programmers using CSPro software in collaboration with the senior subject experts from Manpower Statistics Team of the CSA.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
The following statement must be used as citation:
"Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA). Urban Employment Unemployment Survey 2011 (UEUS 2011) "
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from "DDI-ETH-CSA-UEUS-2011-v1.0" DDI, which was done by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency.