Addressing Extreme Poverty in Bangladesh – The Case of Monga 2008 - 2009, Round 1
Under World Bank contracts (two separate contracts), the Data Analysis and Technical Assistance (DATA) have conducted a three-round survey “Addressing Extreme Poverty in Bangladesh: The Case of monga” in the Northwestern region of Bangladesh to have a better understanding of the causes of the occurrence and persistence of Monga. This survey is specifically designed to permit a scientific and rigorous assessment, of impacts of the Monga which would have implications for policy to mitigate Monga, through follow-up surveys.
The South Asia PREM Sector Unit (SASPR) of the World Bank have undertaken this aforesaid survey. This region experiences seasonal deprivation and a famine-like situation, locally known as Monga, with alarming regularity, along with high incidence of chronic poverty. The primary objective of the task is to provide a better understanding of the causes of the occurrence and persistence of Monga, which would also have implications for broader understanding of extreme poverty in Bangladesh; implications for policy, including proposals for pilot interventions, to help relevant actors such as the government, the NGOs, and the donors to mitigate Monga. The funds for this work have come from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) trust fund (TF091124).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey covered the following ares, Monga-prone greater Rangpur districts (Kurigram, Gaibandha, Lalmonirhat, Nilphamari, Rangpur) and Bogra district, in the northwestern.
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
The World Bank
Survey Areas and Survey Population
The survey has both a household level and a community level questionnaire. The survey has households belonging to the Monga-prone greater Rangpur districts (Kurigram, Gaibandha, Lalmonirhat, Nilphamari, Rangpur) with the sampling frame being representative of the diversity of the region. For example, the survey covered the various agro-ecological zones of the region, include households on river banks and away from it, include mainland households as well as char-land households. In addition to Monga area households, the survey has sample from non-Monga area households in the northwestern Bogra district. It is determined by the World Bank that the total sample size is 2,375 rural households selected from about 125 villages/PSUs. There are 95 PSUs in 5 districts of greater Rangpur (Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Nilphamari, Gaibandha and Rangpur) and 30 PSUs in Bogra districts.
Survey Design and Sampling Strategy
It was decided by the World Bank that the sample size for the study is 2,375 households. Out of these 2,375 households, 1,805 households from 95 PSUs/villages were from Monga-prone greater Rangpur districts (Kurigram, Gaibandha, Lalmonirhat, Nilphamari, Rangpur) and rest 570 households were from non-Monga area, Bogra district, in the northwestern. Sample list of the villages/PSUs from each of the districts were provided by the World Bank.
In the first round of survey, it entailed two sub-surveys: a) Household listing operation: census of households in selected 125 villages with average size of 250 households, if a village size was more than 250 households, village was split using natural/constructed demarcation line such as by using river/canal or village road; and b) the detailed household survey and community component. For the later one it required on-site sampling of required number of households using random sampling technique from the census list and then conducted the household survey on sampled households. For the household sampling from census list a simple random sample selection protocol was developed and used for on-site sample selection. For follow-up 2 rounds of surveys same sample households were tracked and surveyed, only exception is there was no census hence no on-site sampling procedure was adopted for later rounds.
Since village census was compulsory to list all household in the PSUs to sample required 19 households for detailed household survey, it was decided to do the census on the first day of survey in each of the PSUs and in the evening once the census is completed an on-site sampling technique was used to sample 19 households per PSU.
Below is a practical example on sample selection procedure adopted in field after the census is completed. Simple Random Selection of households was performed as follows:
a) Total number of household in the sample village/PSU; in this case it was 300.
b) Total number of sample to be selected. In this case the sample size is 19 per PSU.
c) So an "Interval" (steps) is estimate by dividing: Total Population/Sample size. In this case 300/19 = 15.79
d) A random number was generated for each of the PSU by using excel worksheet function "rand()". In this case it was 0.164
e) Then the "Interval (step)" was multiplied by random number "Interval X Random number", it gave the value for first sampling number (a non-integer number) = 2.594689447.
Now for the second sampling number the "Interval" value added with first sampling number, for third sampling number again the "Interval value" with second sampling number, and so on until we get all 19 sampling number.
The census was listed per PSU from 1 to Nth number as long as it required to number all the listed households in a PSU. As the sampling numbers are non-integer number, to get an integer that corresponds to the listing number of all households the sampling numbers were converted into integer and added "1" to get the household sample number.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Development of Questionnaires
The draft questionnaires for the study have been provided by the World Bank. Later Refinement and adaptation of the questionnaires has been done. Revisions of the questionnaires took place mainly at two instances: 1) initial revision by Consultant upon receipt of the questionnaires; and 2) following the practice session/pretest (testing stage), where the need for further revisions and adaptation has transpired.
After the first draft of questionnaires are received from the World Bank the questionnaires have been revised, modified and reformatted to make it more survey friendly. Then a formative research trip to North-western region (mainly Rangpur and Kurigram) of Bangladesh was arranged to understand living condition and how the people in the monga prone area response in crises. Dr. Umar Serajuddin from the World Bank and Md. Zobair from DATA participated in the formative research trip. After the formative research trip, first draft of the questionnaire has further been revised according to the understanding from formative research.
In follow-up rounds modification of questionnaires mainly due to addition of some questions to or deletion of modules from the survey instrument already fielded in the first round of the survey.
The Census questionnaire collected general information such as, household location, religion, electrification, housing characteristics, land owned by the household, ever migrated for work, participation in 100 days EGP program membership in MFI, asset listing. Furthermore the census survey collected demographic information of the household that includes member specific sex, age, marital status literacy, education in terms of highest class passed, attending school, main occupation. Census questionnaire has been administered to each of the household in the selected villages. For a village the survey considered maximum of 250 household as village size; if a village size was more than 250 households, village has been split using natural/constructed demarcation line such as river/canal or village road. Once the census has been completed, 19 households from each of the villages sampled using random sampling technique for detailed household survey.
Household questionnaire has been administered to each household selected for the survey. The household head, main respondent, was interviewed to complete the household questionnaire. In specific module there are multiple respondent. For an example while interviewing food consumption module, the quantity consumed is answered by the main female while the price of the item was answered by the main male member of the household.
Community questionnaire has been administered to various community leaders such as the large farmer, the principal of a school, local elites. A community questionnaire has been completed in each village in which a household is selected for the survey.
Data Analysis and Technical Assistance
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The World Bank. Addressing Extreme Poverty in Bangladesh – The Case of Monga 2008 - 2009, Round 1. Ref. BGD_2008_MONGA_R1_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.