Agriculture is the single largest sector in the Ethiopian economy. The position of the agricultural sector for the past few decades does not only concern the peasants, but on account of the extent of its inputs, outputs and its function as a largest employer of labour has a profound impact on the entire economy. It is worth to point-out that Ethiopia has large resources in terms of land, agricultural labour, draught animals… etc. Despite all these facts, the average yield of the main food crops and livestock products attained by private peasant holders is very low and it is not adequate to feed the evergrowing population. Because of such prevailing conditions in the agricultural sector, the economy remained at subsistence level. Among the factors that hampered the country not to prosper is the use of primitive farm implements and tools by the peasants to operate their land and to raise livestock.
The role of improved agricultural implements and tools in raising the standard of farming efficiency and increasing average yield of production has been recognized for many years. Land preparation requires modern power source that results in considerable farm efficiency and expansion of production. Sowing and fertilization are among the agricultural operations where animal and tractor drawn machines appear to be capable of greater efficiency than only hand method. Power-driven line sowing and fertilization are more efficient than hand spreading and this is usually expected to result in higher yield for the same amount of fertilizers and seeds.
The traditional unimproved farm implements used by the peasants and the poor conditions of the draught animals are considered to be among the main factors that retarded the agricultural productivity in the country. On the other hand, the development of farm implements and machineries can also be crippled by small land size holdings, abundant labour in rural area and non-availability of adequate access to modern farm implements and machineries, which the private peasant holders can afford to rent or buy. In general, effective development of farm implements and machineries takes place when land is abundant and labour is being rapidly absorbed by nonagricultural sector, (WB, 1984).
Since development programmes are in progress in Ethiopia, data generated from censuses and sample surveys on different types of agricultural outputs and inputs are necessary for the formulation of programmes and policies in the sector and thereby for monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the programmes. One of the objectives of this census was to provide benchmark data that can help to assess the growth, quantity, quality and value of farm implements and other farm equipment used by the private peasant holders so as to easily identify the implements that are abundant and those that are in short supply. The structural characteristics of these farm implements and other farm equipment do not change much from year to year and such data are usually obtained from a census of agriculture, which is conducted every 5 or 10 years.
Data on farm implements and other farm equipment have not been collected in Ethiopia and as a result only very little is known about the status and growth of these implements. Thus, in the Ethiopian agricultural census conducted in 2001/2002, data was collected on farm implements, other farm equipment and draught animals. These farm implements include, implements used for clearing land, cultivation, harvesting, threshing and others. In this census draught animals comprises animals engaged specifically in ploughing, threshing and farm transport facilities. Replacement value was one of the variables covered by this census and it is defined as the amount it would cost to replace the farm implement, equipment, draught animals and storage facility with those that are similar in terms of origin, age, quality or condition.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
Household/ Holder/ Type of farm tools (implements)
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of Agricultural Sample Enumeration (implements module) includes:
- Identificaion particulars
- Farm implements, work animals, and storage facilites
The 2001-2002 (1994 E.C) Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) was designed to cover the rural and urban parts of all districts (weredas) in the country on a large-scale sample basis excluding the pastoralist areas of the Afar and Somali regional states.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The list of enumeration areas for each wereda was compiled from the 1994 Ethiopian Population and Housing Census cartographic work and was used a frame for the selection of the Primary Sampling Units (PSU). The 1994 Population and Housing Census enumeration area maps of the region for the selected sample EA's were updated, and the EA boundaries and descriptions were further clarified to reflect the current physical situation. The sampling frame used for the selection of ultimate sampling units (agricultural households) was a fresh list of households, which was prepared by the enumerator assigned in the sampled EA's using a prescribed listing instruction at the beginning of the launching of the census enumeration.
In order to meet the objectives and requirements of the EASE, a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used for the selection of ultimate sampling units. Thus, in the regions each wereda was treated as stratum for which major findings of the sample census are reported. The primary sampling units are the enumeration areas and the agricultural households are secondary (ultimate) sampling units. Finally, after the selection of the sample agricultural households, the various census forms were administered to all agricultural holders within the sampled agricultural households.
For the private peasant holdings in the rural areas a fixed number (25) of sample EA's in each wereda and 30 agricultural households in each EA were randomly selected (determined). In urban areas, weredas with urban EA's of less than or equal to 25, all the EA's were covered. However, for weredas with greater than 25 urban EA's, sample size of 25 EA's was selected. In each sampled urban EA, 30 agricultural households were randomly selected for the census. The sampled size determination in each wereda and thereby in each EA was based upon the required precision level of the major estimates and the cost consideration. The pilot survey and the previous year annual agricultural sample survey results were used to determine the required sample sizes per wereda.
Sample Selection of Primary Sampling Units
Within each wereda (stratum) in the region, the selection of EAs was carried out using probability proportional to size systematic sampling. In this case, size being total number of agricultural households in each EA obtained from the listing exercise undertaken in the 1994 Ethiopian Population and Housing Census of the region.
Listing of Households and Selection of Agricultural Households
In each sampled enumeration area of the region, a complete and fresh listing of households was carried out by canvassing the households in the EA. After a complete listing of the households and screening of the agricultural households during the listing operation in the selected EA, the agricultural households were serially numbered. From this list, a total of 30 agricultural households were selected systematically using a random start from the pre-assigned column table of random numbers. The sampling interval for each EA was determined by dividing the total number of agricultural households by 30. For crop cutting exercise purposes (rural domain) a total of 20 agricultural households were randomly selected from the 30 sampled agricultural households. The systematical random sampling technique was employed in this case, because its application is simple and flexible, and it can easily yield a proportionate sample.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Forms and equipment are instrumental in gathering information from various sources. The census forms are the vehicle and basic document for collecting the desired data. These include general-purpose forms covering farm management practices, demographic and economic characteristics, area, and production of both temporary and permanent crops; livestock, poultry and beehives ... etc. These forms are formulated for recording data generated through interview as well as objective measurements. Although the planning, organization and execution of the census were the responsibilities that rested within the CSA, development of the census forms was a tedious task that involved the formation of a working group composed of members of government and non-governmental organizations who are major users of agricultural data. Members of the working group were given the opportunity to identify their data requirements, define the needs of others and determine the specific questions that the forms should contain. The working group included the staff of the organizations that are involved in agricultural planning, collection of agricultural statistics and the use of data within the agricultural sector. The working group designed different forms for the various data items on crop area, production, and other variables of interest to meet the needs of current data users and also considered the future expectations. Attempt was made to make the content of the forms of acceptable length by distributing the variables to be collected in the different census forms.
The rural census questionnaires/forms included:
- Forms 94/0 and 94/1 that are used to record all households in the enumeration area, identify the agricultural households and select the units to be covered by the census.
- Form 94/2 is developed to list all the members of the sampled agricultural households and record the demographic and economic characteristics of each of the members.
- Forms 94/3A, 94/3B, 94/3C and 94/3D are prepared to enumerate crop data through interview and objective measurement.
- Form 94/5 is designed to record crop area data via the physical or objective measurement of crop fields.
- Form 94/6 is used to list all the fields under crop and select a crop field for each type of crop randomly for crop cutting exercise.
- Forms 94/7A, 94/7B, and 94/7C are developed for recording yield data on cereals, oil seeds, pulses, vegetables root crops and permanent crops by weighing their yields obtained from sub-plots and/or trees selected for crop-cuttings.
- Form 94/8 is prepared to enumerate livestock, poultry and beehives data by type, age, sex and purpose including products through interview (subjective approach).
- Forms 94/9, 94/10 and 94/11 are used to collect data on crop and livestock product usage; miscellaneous items and farm tools, implements, draught animals and storage facilities, in that order, by interviewing the sample holders.
"Belg" season questionnaires identified as:
- Form 94/12A and 94/12B that are used to record data on farm management practices of the "Belg" season.
- Form 94/4 was the questionnaire used for collecting data on crop production forecast for 2001-2002 and the data collected using this form was published in December 2001 subjectively, while 94/12C is for recording "Belg" season crop area through objective measurement and volume of production through interview approach.
On the other hand, the census questionnaires/forms used in the urban areas include:
- Form U-94/1 which used to record all households in the EA, identify the agricultural households and select the units to be covered by the census.
- Form U-94/2 is developed to list all the members of the sampled agricultural household and record the demographic and economic characteristics of each of the members.
- From U-94/3 is prepared to enumerate crop data through interview method.
- Form U-94/4 is prepared to enumerate livestock, poultry and beehives data by type, sex, age and purpose including products through interview (subjective approach).
- Form U-94/5 is used to collect data on crop and livestock usage.
Editing, Coding and Verification:
In the 2001-2002 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE), the filled-in forms that were retrieved from 47 Branch Statistical Offices were primarily received and systematically registered at the documentation unit of the CSA head quarters in Addis Ababa. Before launching the actual editing and coding activities, the Natural Resources and Agricultural Statistics Department staff gave adequate training to the 157 editors and coders. These editors and coders carried out the manual editing, coding and verification of the filled-in EASE questionnaires in two shifts. At the outset, the editing and coding activities for the filled-in forms on area and agricultural practices took place; this was followed up by the editing and coding of the forms on the production of temporary crops (cereals, pulses, oil seeds, vegetables and root crops), livestock, farm implements, permanent crops, "Belg" and miscellaneous questionnaires region by region. For the filled-in forms on area and agricultural practices, verification was carried out on 100% basis for the first five weeks from the launching of the activity and then considering the quality performance of editor-coders the activity was dropped to 66% of the forms gradually. On the other hand, the verification activity has been carried out on 100% basis for the filled-in forms on production of the temporary and permanent crops, livestock, farm implements and all other completed forms. For the total country, the editing, coding and verification of the filled-in forms in general took about 330.6 working days. That is, the editing, coding and verification of the filled-in forms for area, agricultural practice, the production of the temporary and permanent crops, and livestock took about 198.5 working days, while that of the filled-in forms on farm implements, demographic characteristics, Belg season and the urban forms took around 132.1 working days.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
About 144 data encoders were assigned to undertake the data entry activity of 2001/02 EASE and it has been carried out on two-shift basis. Before the starting of the data entry operation data encoders were trained for about 5 days using computer programs developed by the Data Processing Department staff. The Programmers prepared the data entry programs using CENTRY, which is a data entry module of IMPS (Integrated Microcomputer Processing System). The data entry exercise has been carried out using 76 personal computers (PC's). Like that of the manual editing and coding activity, the filled-in forms on area and agricultural practices were entered first and this was followed by entry of the filled-in forms on the production of temporary crops, livestock, farm implements, permanent crops, "Belg" and miscellaneous questionnaires region by region till all the census data entry operations are completed. In order to ensure the quality of the data entry work, verification exercise was carried out. The entry of the filled-in forms on area and agricultural practices were verified on 100 % basis. Then the verification exercise was dropped to 66 % from the 6th week of the launching of the operation and was further reduced to 50% from the 10th week onwards by observing and assessing the magnitude of the percentage of errors. Later on verification process was carried out on 100% basis for the filled-in forms on the production of temporary and permanent crops, livestock, farm implements and all other completed forms. The verification activity was carried out through the process of re-entering the data. For the total country, the whole data entry process of the filled-in forms on area, agricultural practice, the production of the temporary and permanent crops, and livestock took around 253.1 working days, while that of the filled-in forms on farm implements, demographic characteristics, Belg season and the urban forms took about 257.9 working days. Data entered into the computer needs to be checked for completeness, consistency and validity. For this purpose computer edit programs were prepared by programmers using CONCOR, which is the editing module of IMPS. Using print-outs from these programs and referring to the filled-in census forms, corrections were made by nine trained manual data cleaning technicians. Moreover, nine other data-cleaning computer operators were involved in making the actual corrections of the data on the computer. Additionally, an intermediate set of instructions or programs were made available and applied on the data to prepare information suitable for tabulation. These programs were prepared using CSPro and IMPS software. Like IMPS Software, CSPro is used as a tool for entering, editing and tabulating data. CSA used the CSPro software for data editing and calculation of CVs. Data made ready for tabulation through the process of cleaning and intermediate programs was finally used to generate the required tables. This was done using tabulation programs developed by the senior programmers of the Data processing Department. The CENTS software, a tabulation component of IMPS, was used in producing the 2001-2002 EASE results.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimated procedure of parameters of interest like total, yield and ratio and their sampling errors is presented in Appendix I of the reports which are attached with this metadata. Standard errors and coefficients of variations of estimates for selected variables are also given as an annex at the end of each report.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )
The following statement must be used as citation:
"Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA). Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSE 2001-2002) "
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from "DDI-ETH-CSA-AgSE-IMP-2001-v1.1" DDI, that was done by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency.