Three questionnaires were used to collect the survey data: the Household, Women’s, and Men’s Questionnaires. The contents of these questionnaires were based on model questionnaires developed by the MEASURE DHS programme that underwent only slight adjustments to reflect relevant issues in Kenya. Adjustment was done through a consultative process with all the relevant technical institutions, government agencies, and local and international organisations. The three questionnaires were then translated from English into Kiswahili and 10 other local languages (Kalenjin, Kamba, Kikuyu, Kisii, Luhya, Luo, Maasai, Meru, Mijikenda, and Somali). The questionnaires were further refined after the pretest and training of the field staff.
In each of the sampled households, the Household Questionnaire was the first to be administered and was used to list all the usual members and visitors. Basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women age 15-49 and men age 15-54 who were eligible for the individual interviews. The questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor, walls, and roof of the house, ownership of various durable goods, ownership of agricultural land, ownership of domestic animals, and ownership and use of mosquito nets. In addition, this questionnaire was used to capture information on height and weight measurements of women age 15-49 years and children age five years and below, and, in households eligible for collection of blood samples, to record the respondents’ consent to voluntarily give blood samples. A detailed description of HIV testing procedures is given in Section 1.10 below.
The Women’s Questionnaire was used to capture information from all women age 15-49 years and covered the following topics:
- Respondent’s background characteristics (e.g., education, residential history, media exposure)
- Reproductive history
- Knowledge and use of family planning methods
- Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
- Immunisation, nutrition, and childhood illnesses
- Fertility preferences
- Husband’s background characteristics and woman’s work
- Marriage and sexual activity
- Infant and child feeding practices
- Childhood mortality
- Awareness and behaviour about HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
- Knowledge of tuberculosis
- Health insurance
- Adult and maternal mortality
- Domestic violence
- Female genital cutting
The set of questions on domestic violence sought to obtain information on women’s experience of violence. The questions were administered to one woman per household. In households with more eligible women, special procedures (use of a ‘Kish grid’) were followed to ensure that the woman interviewed about domestic violence was randomly selected.
The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-54 years living in every second household in the sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected information similar to that collected in the Women’s Questionnaire, but it was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history, maternal and child health, nutrition, maternal mortality, and domestic violence.
Two pilot projects were conducted in 12 districts for the KDHS, the first from July 1-7, 2008, and the second from October 13-17, 2008, to test the questionnaires, which were written in English and then translated into eleven other languages. The pilot was repeated because the first pilot did not include the HIV blood testing component. Twelve teams (one for each language) were formed, each with one female interviewer, one male interviewer, and one health worker. A total of 260 households were covered in the pilots. The lessons learnt from the pilot surveys were used to finalise the survey instruments and set up strong, logistical arrangements to ensure the success of the survey.