The earliest HIES was conducted in 1943 covering 23 European families and then was followed a year later with survey covering only Indo-Fijian workmen living in Suva. There were more comprehensive surveys in 1995, 1965, 1968, 1972, 1973, 1977, 1983, and 1990-91. The 1990-91 HIES results were deemed as unreliable by Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics (FIBoS).
The Fiji Household Income and Expenditure data is necessary to revise the weights in Consumer Price Index (CPI). It also useful for analysis of poverty in Fiji and examining trends in consumption patterns which can impact on the economic well-being of the Fiji economy.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of Fiji 2002 HIES includes:
- Demographic, Economic Activity Status and Housing Particulars
- Housing Particulars
- Expenditures on Household Utilities, Education, Health etc.
o Household and Other Bills
o Expenditure on Education, Health, Religion, Culture and Holidays, etc
o Housing Tenure Rents and Other Maintenance Costs
o Land Purchase for Residential or Farming Purposes
o Outright Purchase of Durable
o Installment Agreement or Hire Purchase, Lay-by etc. on Consumer Durables
o Installment Agreement or Hire Purchase, Lay-by etc. on Consumer Semi-Durables
o Outright Purchase of Consumer Semi-Durables
o Interest on Other Borrowings
- Other Households Cash Expenditures (personal diary)
o Household Cash Expenditure
o Consumption of Home Produced Commodities
o Goods and Services Taken from your Business
o Goods and Services Obtained from your Employer
o Gifts of Cash or Goods and Services Received
o Gifts of Cash Expenditure
- Household Income
o Primary Income
o Non-primary Income
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Statistics (FIBoS)
The starting sampling frame was the updated urban and rural Enumeration Areas (EAs) of the 1996 Population and Housing Census. A frame update exercise was carried out in areas where it was thought that significant changes had taken place: the Suva-Nausori corridor, Nadi, Lautoka, Ba and Labasa.
For the urban survey, it was decided that the divisions would be stratified into 14 socio-economic “classes” defined as High Class, Middle Class, Housing Authority, Settlement, Squatter and Village.
In the rural survey, the Divisions were stratified using a “remoteness index” ranging from 1 (closest to urban areas) to 4 (furthest from urban areas) - resulting in 13 strata.
A two-stage sampling strategy was used. In the first stage, representative samples of Urban and Rural Enumeration Areas were selected. The listing stage then collected demographic, economic activity and housing information from all households in the selected EAs.
Within each stratum several Enumeration Areas (EAs) or Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) from the frame were selected with probability proportional to size, measured in terms of the total households in the frame. Within each EA, a fixed number of households were selected by systematic random sampling.
The household weight for all the households in each selected EA was calculated as:
((Population of Stratum i) * (Listing number of households in EA)) / ((Frame population of EA) * (No of hh in sample) * (Number of EAs selected in stratum))
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The Bureau conducted training programmes for enumerators and supervisors at its four centres, followed by examinations to select those qualified. The training covered conduct of interviews, as well as the content of the questionnaires.
Data collection for each of the urban and rural surveys was continuous over a 1-year period. For each survey, a quarter of the sample households was covered in a 3-month sub-round. In effect, there were four independent sub-samples for each survey. Each sub-round sample was distributed into lots to ensure data was collected continuously for the whole 1-year period.
Fieldwork arrangements were delegated to 4 field superintendents who put together their work plans, assigned the supervisors and enumerators, and ensured the regular accountable financing of their required activities, including travel, subsistence and fees.
The arrangements for the interview depended on the availability of the householder. For the diary the enumerators were required to visit the household daily for two weeks, to try to minimize omissions due to weaknesses in the recall.
The Enumerators were instructed to complete work in a selected EA within a time frame of 3 weeks. The first week was spent on listing all households in the EA and the following two weeks for gathering information on Schedule 2 (recurrent expenditure) Schedule 3 (2 week expenditure diary) and Schedule 4 (income).
Supervisors were required to check on enumerators on a daily basis, selecting households at random to confirm that the data recorded was actually reported by the householder. These checks improve the data collection practice of the enumerators, although there were a few cases of termination of employment.
With expenditure usually being better reported than incomes, where the former exceeded the latter, enumerators were required to re-question the relevant households for possible omissions of incomes. Enumerators were also trained to probe further where they observed that households had income-earning assets but were not reporting any related incomes. Enumerators and Supervisors were also required to check the validity of any large incomes and expenditures reported.
Coding and data entry work was centralised to the 4 regional offices. Data was captured using CSPro and processed using SAS. Manually calculated subtotals and totals were used as control totals to check against data entry errors and consistency of the computer programmes.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.