The 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey is the second survey of this type conducted in Eritrea.
The EDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health.
The major aim of the 2002 EDHS was to provide up-to-date information on: fertility and childhood mortality levels, fertility preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, use of maternal and child health services, breastfeeding practices, nutritional status of mothers and young children, and awareness and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. It was designed as a follow-on to the 1995 EDHS survey. However, compared with the 1995 survey, the 2002 EDHS is significantly expanded in scope and coverage.
More specifically, the 2002 EDHS survey was designed to:
- Collect data at the national level that allow the calculation of demographic rates, particularly fertility and childhood mortality rates;
- Assess the health status of mothers and children under age five in Eritrea, including nutritional status, use of antenatal and maternity services, treatment of recent episodes of childhood illness, use of immunization services, and malaria prevention activities;
- Measure the levels and patterns of knowledge and behavior of women about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, and female circumcision;
- Provide information on changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence and the factors that have contributed to these changes, such as marriage patterns, desire for children, availability of contraception, breastfeeding practices, and other important socioeconomic factors; and
- Assess gender issues.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Female Genital Cutting
- GPS/Georeferenced–Global Positioning System or Georeferenced Data
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Iodine salt test
- Malaria Module (bednet) –Includes bednet inventory
- Women's Status–Questions: women's autonomy (household decisionmaking/free movement/access money) & Dom. violence
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics and Evaluation Office (NSEO)
United States Agency for International Development
United Nations Population Fund
Canada International Development Agency
The sample for the 2002 EDHS survey is a nationally representative sample of households and is self-weighted in each of the six zobas but not proportionally distributed among the zobas. The sample was designed using information provided by the Ministry of Local Government on the total number of households in various administrative units, mainly villages (in rural areas) and towns (in urban areas). It is a two-stage cluster design in rural areas and a three-stage cluster design in urban areas.
A national sample of 368 clusters was selected, with 249 in rural areas and 119 in urban areas. A complete household listing operation was carried out in all the selected clusters to provide a frame for the final systematic selection of households. Twenty-five households were selected from each cluster in urban and rural areas in all zobas except one. In zoba Debubawi Keih Bahri, 40 households were selected in each cluster because this zoba contains less than 4 percent of the national population, and has transportation problems, so it was decided to select fewer, larger clusters in this zoba.
Around 9,800 households were selected from the 368 clusters to provide an expected sample of 8,500 eligible women.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 9,824 households were selected in the sample, of which 9,512 households were occupied. Of the total occupied households, 9,389 were interviewed successfully, giving a household response rate of 99 percent. In general, response rates for households were not influenced by urban-rural residence.
From the interviewed households, 9,096 women eligible were identified for the individual interview, of whom 8,754 were successfully interviewed. The women’s response rate for the 2002 EDHS was 96 percent. Nonresponse among women was mainly due to the absence of women at home at the time of interview, despite repeated visits to the household. The women’s response rate is higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.1 and Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training of the field staff, namely interviewers, supervisors and field editors for the main survey was conducted over a three-week period from February to March 2002. The training was conducted following the standard DHS training procedures, including class presentations, mock interviews, field practice and tests. There was a detailed review of items on the questionnaires and interviewer instructions, and the trainees practiced weighing and measuring women and children. The trainers included NSEO staff, guest lecturers from various departments of the Ministry of Health and the ORC Macro country manager.
A total of 123 female field staff were trained, of which 98 with good performance were selected to form 14 teams for the fieldwork. The remaining 25 trainees were assigned as data processing staff. Following the training, the fieldwork for the survey was conducted from the last week of March to the first week of July 2002.
Two kinds of questionnaires were used in the 2002 EDHS survey: the Household Questionnaire and the Women’s Questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaires were based on the MEASURE DHS+ Model “B”, which was developed for countries with low levels of contraceptive use. The NSEO held several meetings with experts and professionals from partner ministries, most importantly the Ministry of Health, to discuss the questionnaires. The MOH, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labor and Human Welfare, and other concerned institutions in Eritrea actively participated in reviewing and modifying the questionnaires to address Eritrean concerns. Both questionnaires, which were originally prepared in English, were translated into and printed in seven local languages: Tigrigna, Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Afar, Kunama, and Nara. A pretest of the questionnaires was conducted in December 2002.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all of the usual members and visitors who spent the night before the interview in the selected households. Basic background information on each listed person was collected, including age, sex, marital status, educational level attained, occupation, and relationship to the head of the household. The information on age was used to identify women eligible for the individual interview and children less than five years of age whose height and weight would be measured. The Household Questionnaire also obtained information on selected socioeconomic indicators such as number of rooms in the dwelling, type of floor material, source of drinking water, type of toilet facilities, and ownership of various durable goods. Information on the household’s possession of mosquito nets was collected, and a test was conducted by interviewers to assess whether the household used cooking salt fortified with iodine.
The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. Respondents were asked questions on the following topics: background characteristics; reproductive history; contraceptive knowledge and use; antenatal, delivery and postnatal care; infant feeding practices; child immunization, health and nutrition; marriage and sexual activity; and fertility preferences. In addition, respondents were asked questions about their husband’s background characteristics. Data on female circumcision and on knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections were collected.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2002 EDHS to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2002 EDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2002 EDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2002 EDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module (ISSAS). This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.