Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey 1999-2000
The need for comprehensive economic statistics has been recently growing rapidly in most developing countries in view of the use of such statistics in formulating socio-economic development plans in general, and to assess the socio-economic situation at the household level such as the one obained from Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey, on a regular basis are the major sources of these data. The survey provides valuable data, especially for assessment of the impact of policies on the conditions and levels of living of houeholds. It is a well known fact that surveys of Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure usually have the major goal of providing basic data needed for the purpose of designing socio-economic policy as well as other related issues that might arise at the micro level.
The major objectives of the survey are to:
- Provide data on the levels, distribution and pattern of household income, consumption and expenditure that will be used for analysis of changes in the levels of living standards of households over time in various socio-economic groups and geographical areas.
- Obtained information for the formulation of socio-economic plans and policies.
- Furnish bench mark data for assessing the impact of existing or proposed socio-economic programs on household living conditions.
- Provide data for compiling household accounts in the system of national accounts, especially in the estimation of private consumption expenditure.
- Obtain weights and other useful information for the construction of consumer price indices at various levels.
The survey covered all households in the selected sample areas excluding residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Statistical Authority (CSA)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The 1999-2000 Household Income, Consumption, and Expenditure Survey covered both the urban the sedentary rural parts of the country. The survey has not covered six zones in Somalia Region and two zones in Afar Region that are inhabited mainly by nomadic population. For the purpose of the survey, the country was divided into three categories. That is, the rural parts of the country and the urban areas that were divided into two broad categories taking into account sizes of their population.
Rural parts of nine Regional States and two administrative regions were grouped in this category each of which was the survey domains (reporting levels). These regions are Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somalia, Benishangul-Gumuz, SNNPR, Gambela, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
All regional capitals and five major urban centers of the country were grouped in this category. Each of the urban centers in this category was the survey domain (reporting level) for which separate survey results for major survey characteristics were reported.
Category III: Urban centers in the country other than the urban centers in category II were grouped in this category and formed a single reporting level.
Other than the reporting levels defined in the category II and category III one additional domain, namely total urban (country level) can be constructed by combining the basic domains defined in the two categories. All in all 35 basic rural and urban domains (reporting levels) were defined for the survey. In addition to the above urban and rural domains, survey results are to be reported at regional and country levels by aggregating the survey results for the corresponding urban and rural areas. Definition of the survey domains was based on both technical and resource considerations. More specifically, sample size for the domains were determined to enable provision of major indicators with reasonable precision subject to the resources that were available for the survey.
SELECTION SCHEME AND SAMPLE SIZE IN EACH CATEGORY:
1) Category I:
A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs. Sample enumeration areas (EAs) from each domain were selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the rural parts of the country. Within each sample EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 12 households per sample EA for rural areas were systematically selected.
2) Category II:
In this category also, a stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample. Here a strata constitutes all the "Region State Capitals" and the five "Major Urban Centers" in the country and are grouped as a strata in this category. The primary sampling units (PSUs) are the EA's in the Regional State Capitals and the five major urban centers and excludes the special EAs (non-conventional households). Sample enumeration areas (EAs) from each stratum were selected using systematic sampling probability proportional to size, size being number of houesholds obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. A total of 373 EAs were selected from this domain of study. Within each sample EAs a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and for the administration of the questionnaire 16 houeholds per sample EA were systematically selected.
3) Category III:
Three-stage stratified sample design was adopted to select the sample from domains in category III. The PSUs were other urban centers selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size; size begin number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. The secondary sampling units (SSUs) were EAs which were selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. A total of 169 sample EAs were selected from the sample of other urban centers and was determined by proportional allocation to their size of households from the 1994 census. Ultimately, 16 households within each of the sample EAs were selected systematically from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork for the administrator of the survey questionnaire.
With regard to ultimate sampling units, it was planned to covered a total of 17,336 households (8,664 in rural and 8,672 in urban areas) all over the country. The response rate was about 100 percent (99.95 percent or 8,660 households in rural and 100 percent or 8,672 households in urban areas). Only four of the selected rural households in Afar region refused to cooperate in giving responses to the questions asked in the survey.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
First round data collection (G.C calender)
Second round data collection (G.C calender)
Time periods (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
In surveys of this kind, regular supervision is a compulsory component of the whole data collection process. Thus, the field supervision activity of the 1999-2000 HIES has started right after the first round data collection was lunched. During the survey fieldwork, close and regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. During the training period, the management staff from the head office visited all branch statistical offices and discussed the objectives, importance of the survey, the expected quality of the data and some other related issues with supervisors and enumerators. Immediately after the commencement of fieldwork, close supervision was made by supervisors who made spot-checking, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires to ensure that the data collected activities are took place according to the instructions given in the enumerators' instruction manual and during the training. In addition to this, in the process of data collection operation supervision was made by the trainers from the head quarters (senior professional staff) and the branch statistical office heads.
Type of Research Instrument
The Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey questionnaire contains the following forms:
- Form 1: Area Identification and Household Characteristics
- Form 2A: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food and drinks consumed at home and tobacco/including quantity purchased, own produced, obtained, etc for first and second week.
- Form 2B: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food and drinks consumed at home and tobacco/including quantity purchased, own produced, obtained, etc for third and fourth week .
- Form 3A: All transaction (income, expenditure and consumption) for the first and second weeks except what is collected in Forms 2A and 2B
- Form 3B: All transaction (income, expenditure and consumption) for the third and fourth weeks except what is collected in Forms 2A and 2B
- Form 4: All transaction (expenditure and consumption) for last 6 months for Household expenditure on some selected item groups
- Form 5: Cash income and receipts received by household and type of tenure. The survey questionnaire is provided as external resource.
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Due to complex nature and magnitude of the survey, CSA has given special attention to the data processing activity. Thus, a task force comprising of subject matter specialists and data processing experts was formed to oversee the data processing and analysis activities of the HIES starting from August 1999. After the completion of the first round of the survey data collected operation, the filled-in questionnaires were retrieved from the field, the task force embarked on the first stage of data processing activities, i.e. manual editing, coding and verification. Experienced editors-coders and verifiers have been deployed for this activities. Considering the complication of the data collected in this survey the editing, coding and verification of the questionnaires have taken the most part of the three months after which data entry was started.
For the data entry activity, the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software was used throughout. To speed up this process, experienced data entry operators were used and the data entry activity was completed in December 1999. The survey data collected during the second round (January 1999 - February 2000) have also passed through all the data processing activities stated above for the first round.
After the data entry of both rounds of the survey has been completed, the next step in the data processing activity was to merge the data from the first and the second rounds of the survey. Unlike the 1995-1996 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey, which was done with the help of a short term consultancy services provided by Statistics Norway, the merging operation of these surveys was successfully completed in October 2000 by the programmers in the Data Processing Department of the CSA, after which data cleaning, detailed and through consistency checking were done. In fact, the data cleaning and the consistency checking, which were important for the generation of the final tabular reports, were done both manually and by computer.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website http://www.csa.gov.et
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of finance and economic Development
Production of metadata
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Production
Version 02: (May 2011) Adopted from DDI-ETH-CSA-HICE-2000-v1.1.xml which was done by Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency.