Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2004-2005
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
The HICE survey basically reflect the income dimension of poverty while WM survey aims at providing socioeconomic data that reflect the non-income dimension of poverty. The HICE survey provides statistics on income, consumption and expenditure of households and WM survey provides basic indicators on the various socioeconomic areas including health, education, nutrition, access to and utilization and satisfaction of basic facilities/services and related non-income aspects of poverty. The HICE survey has been conducted together with the WM survey every four-five years since 1995/96. The latest of these HICE surveys is for 2004/5 and covered a representative sample of 21,600 households. Previous HICE were similarly representative, covered 11,928 and 17,332 households for 1995/96 and 1999/00, respectively.
Unlike the previous two HICE surveys that had been conducted in 1995/96 and 1999/00, in the 2004/05 HICE survey data on Household Consumption Expenditure and Household Income were collected independently using separate modules. However, this statistical report concentrates only on the household consumption expenditure part.
The core objective of the HICE survey is to provide data that enable to understand the income aspects of poverty and the major objectives are to:
- assess the level, extent and distribution of income dimension of poverty;
- provide data on the levels, distribution and pattern of household expenditure that will be used for analysis of changes in the households' living standard level over time in various socio-economic groups and geographical areas;
- provide basic data that enables to design, monitor and evaluate the impact of socio- economic policies and programs on households/individuals living standard;
- furnish series of data for assessing poverty situations, in general, and food security, in particular;
- provide data for compiling household accounts in the system of national accounts, especially in the estimation of private consumption expenditure; and
- obtain weights and other useful information for the construction of consumer price indices at various levels and geographical areas.
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The 2004-2005 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey covered the following topics:
- Area Identification
- Economic and Demographic Characteristics
- Quantity and Value of Food, Drink and Tobacco Consumption (including purchased, own produced, obtained free, etc.)
- Non-durable Goods Expenditure
- Expenditure on Durable Goods in Last 3 and 6 Months
The 2004/05 HICE Sample Survey covered all rural and urban parts of the country except all zones of Gambella Region, and the non-sedentary population of three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali regions.
The survey covered all households in the selected sample areas excluding residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency (CSA)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The World Bank IDA Credit
Norwegian Trust Fund
The list of households obtained from the 2001/2 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) was used as a frame to select EAs from the rural part of the country. On the other hand, the list consisting of households by EA, which was obtained from the 2004 Ethiopian Urban Economic Establishment Census, (EUEEC), was used as a frame in order to select sample enumeration areas for the urban HICE survey. A fresh list of households from each urban and rural EA was prepared at the beginning of the survey period. This list was, thus, used as a frame in order to select households from sample EAs.
For the purpose of the survey the country was divided into three broad categories. That is; rural, major urban center and other urban center gories.
Rural: - This category consists of the rural areas of eight regional states and two administrative councils (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa) of the country, except Gambella region. Each region was considered to be a domain (Reporting Level) for which major findings of the survey are reported. This category comprises 10 reporting levels. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used to select samples in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs. Twelve households per sample EA were selected as a Second Stage Sampling Unit (SSU) to which the survey questionnaire were administered.
Category II:- Major urban centers:- In this category all regional capitals (except Gambella region) and four additional urban centers having higher population sizes as compared to other urban centers were included. Each urban center in this category was considered as a reporting level. However, each sub-city of Addis Ababa was considered to be a domain (reporting levels). Since there is a high variation in the standards of living of the residents of these urban centers (that may have a significant impact on the final results of the survey), each urban center was further stratified into the following three sub-strata.
Sub-stratum 1:- Households having a relatively high standards of living
Sub-stratum 2:- Households having a relatively medium standards of living and
Sub-stratum 3:- Households having a relatively low standards of living.
The category has a total of 14 reporting levels. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was also adopted in this instance. The primary sampling units were EAs of each urban center. Allocation of sample EAs of a reporting level among the above mentioned strata were accomplished in proportion to the number of EAs each stratum consists of. Sixteen households from each sample EA were finally selected as a Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU).
Category III: - Other urban centers: - Urban centers in the country other than those under category II were grouped into this category. Excluding Gambella region a domain of “other urban centers” is formed for each region. Consequently, 7 reporting levels were formed in this category. Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa do not have urban centers other than that grouped in category II. Hence, no domain was formed for these regions under this category.
Unlike the above two categories a stratified three-stage cluster sample design was adopted to select samples from this category. The primary sampling units were urban centers and the second stage sampling units were EAs. Sixteen households from each EA were lastly selected at the third stage and the survey questionnaires administered for all of them.
Sample Size and Selection Scheme
Category I: - Totally 797 EAs and 9,564 households were selected from this category. Sample EAs of each reporting level were selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) with systematic sampling technique; size being number of households obtained from the 2001/2 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 12 households per EA were systematically selected and surveyed.
Category II: - In this category 485 EAs and 7,760 households were selected. Sample EAs from each reporting level in this category were also selected using probability proportional to size with systematic sampling method; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 16 households per EA were systematically selected and covered by the survey.
Category III:-127 urban centers, 275 EAs and 4,400 households were selected in this category. Urban centers from each domain and EAs from each urban center were selected using probability proportional to size with systematic sampling method; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. From the listing of each EA 16 households were systematically selected and the survey was carried out on the 16 ultimately selected households.
Including region rural, region urban and country domains, totally 61 reporting levels (including the 10 sub-cities of Addis Ababa) were formed. For the overall distribution of planned and covered EAs and households see Annex I of the 2004-2005 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HICE).
In the rural part of the country it was planned to cover 797 enumeration areas (EAs) and 9,564 households. However, due to various reasons 3 EAs and 64 households were not covered by the survey. The overall response rate is 99.62 percent for EAs and 99.3 percent for households. For urban areas 760 EAs and 12,160 households were planned to be covered ultimately, 100 percent of EAs and 99.50 percent of households were successfully covered by the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
First round data collection (G.C calender)
Second round data collection (G.C calender)
Data Collection Mode
In survey of this type, regular and intensive supervision is necessary and crucial component of the whole data collection process. A regular supervision, which is also compulsory activity in the CSA surveys, has been undertaken at various levels to ensure the quality of the data. The permanent field supervisors were assigned to take care of the day-to-day supervision activities. Branch Statistical Office heads and statisticians were also involved in the regular supervision operation. Moreover, most of the professionals and sub professionals from the head office that were engaged in the training of the field staff were also deployed in the actual field supervision. A team comprised the top management has also visited the fieldwork of the survey.
Data Collection Notes
A pilot study has been conducted in Addis Ababa and in some rural enumeration areas of Oromiya for a period of one month (15 March 1999 - 30 March 1999). A total of seven enumeration areas, ten in Addis Ababa and three in the mentioned rural areas were covered by the pilot study. Some 50 rural and urban households were interviewed in this exercise. In general, this exercise enabled the Authority to make some important improvements to the final survey document and to assess and allocate the necessary technical as well as administrative and logistics support needed for the survey.
Training of field staff:
For this survey the training program for the enumerators, supervisors and other field and office staff was conducted at two stages. The first stage was conducted at the CSA head quarters, in Addis Ababa. The participants were selected from professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office heads and their assistants who were to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the branch statistical offices.
The training at the head office, which lasted for fifteen days, consisted of theoretical discussions on how to complete the questionnaire as well as practical interview of households and/or household members. The objectives of practical interviewing of households were two fold. Firstly, it enabled to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same message to enumerators and supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty which would likely to be encountered during the actual fieldwork.
Thorough discussions in the class room were made after field practice. The discussions were intended to help exchange experiences among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions which need more care and attention. This practical fieldwork was conducted both at the head office and at branch offices in selected areas.
The second stage training was undertaken at the branch statistical offices. The trainers were that professional and sub-professional staffs who was trained at the head office. The second stage training lasted for twenty five days and also consisted of both theoretical class discussions and practical field practice. Furthermore, refreshment training was given for ten days to the enumerators and supervisors before launching the data collection operation in the second round of the survey which was carried out during January - February 2000.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey questionnaire contains the following forms:
- Form 1: Area Identification and Household Characteristics
- Form 2A: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food and drinks consumed at home and tobacco/including quantity purchased, own produced, obtained, etc for first and second week.
- Form 2B: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food and drinks consumed at home and tobacco/including quantity purchased, own produced, obtained, etc for third and fourth week .
- Form 3A: All transaction (income, expenditure and consumption) for the first and second weeks except what is collected in Forms 2A and 2B
- Form 3B: All transaction (income, expenditure and consumption) for the third and fourth weeks except what is collected in Forms 2A and 2B
- Form 4: All transaction (expenditure and consumption) for last 6 months for Household expenditure on some selected item groups
- Form 5: Cash income and receipts received by household and type of tenure.
Data Editing, Coding and Capturing:
The first step of data processing activities was the training of 40 data editors/ coders and 20 supervisors by subject matter department staff members for the first round survey data. The data capturing (data entry) operation was carriedout using about 60 computers and as many data encoders. Similarly, the data processing activities of the second round survey were undertaken by about 60 editors/coders and 25 verifiers for about 85 days. Data entry operation took about 60 days using 125 computers and as many data encoders.
Data validation and cleaning activity was carried out by subject matter specialists and data processing programmers. The data cleaning and validity checking activities were carried out at commodity, and visit levels and has been done systematically. For this purpose various type of edit specification documents were prepared by subject matter specialists and used for the data cleaning purpose.
The data cleaning and validation activities have passed through various steps, such as:
- Estimation of missing observations (either value or quantity) using the available results of the price survey that was collected at the time of the survey from a near- by market places;
- Validity and consistency of quantity and value of consumption items were checked at a visit level based on internal 1and/or external 2 price data;
- Estimation (conversion) of consumption of own production using the observed quantities and the external price survey data;
- Comparison of the household expenditure were made on durable goods that were collected at different reference periods (3 and 6 months) in order to decide whether to utilized the 3 or 6 month's data for the analysis, and similar validation techniques have been carried out.
After completing the data cleaning and validation activities two sets of six month's estimates were separately created prior to merging the two rounds data sets. Due to the nature of the survey, the validity checking and data cleaning activity has taken a long period of time.
The data processing activities were undertaken at the head office. These activities included manual editing, coding, verification, and data capturing (data entry) in its first stage. Consistency checking, and data validation activities has been carried out in the second stage, while estimation with proper sampling weights and tabulation activities were carried out in the final stage of the data processing by concerned professionals
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures, standard errors and coefficients of variations for the estimates of selected variables are also presented in Annex II and Annex III of the 2004-2005 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HICE).
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website http://www.csa.gov.et
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency. Ethiopia Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2004-2005. Dataset downloaded from http://www.csa.gov.et on [date].
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
(c) 2004, Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of finance and economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.1: (May 2011) Adopted from DDI-ETH-CSA-HICE-2004-v1.1 which was done by Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency.