The 2007-2008 Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS IV) is the fourth LECS survey conducted in Lao PDR. The first was conducted in 1992-1993, the second in 1997-1998, and the third in 2002-2003.
The fourth expenditure and consumption survey (LECS 4) in Lao PDR is a survey in terms of socio-economy at the household echelon. This survey is conducted in every 5 years. The present round of surveys started from 1992 and the main statistical collection unit is the household. This survey is a sample survey which is carried out in every province and district over the whole country. The survey was undertaken from April 2007 to March 2008 (for a period of 12 months), in order to be able to provide data on expenditure and consumption covering all seasons and relating to aspects of every area and region in the Lao PDR.
The purpose of the expenditure and consumption survey (LECS) is to estimate the expenditure and consumption of household as well as production, investment, accumulation and other socio-economic aspects of the households in the formal and informal sector of the economy.
The results of expenditure and consumption survey in Lao PDR will provide necessary data to be used for calculation of various indicators and are intended for socio-economic planning. It will also provide data for calculation of GDP, definition of poverty line, data on nutrition and other important information. The LECS surveys are the most important surveys in the statistical data collection system of Lao PDR.
The main objectives of this survey are:
- Estimation at macro level for national accounts, including private consumption, household investment, production and income from agriculture and household business;
- Structure of household consumption (weight system) for consumption price index calculation (CPI);
- Estimation on labor force;
- Nutrition statistic;
- Poverty statistics and statistics of income distribution.
In this survey, data on expenditure and income was collected from households. Data was collected during one month using the daily recording principle. All transactions were captured in a diary and classified by kind of consumption, or by result of agricultural production and business of the household. Data on purchase of goods with long life-time (durables) such as furniture, television, automobile, motorcycle and others were also recorded for the period of the past 12 months.
Data on time use was captured in the middle of the month for all household members aged 10 years and higher.
The 2007-2008 Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS IV) covered the following topics:
- Organizations, Services
- General Economic Conditions
- Land and Land Use in the Village
- Health Care
- Wages, Prices, Restrictions and House Construction
- Household Roster
· Household composition
- Labor Force
· Labor force participation last seven days
· Overview of work in the last seven days
· Main activities in the last twelve months
- Household Possession of Durables
- Housing Conditions
- Construction Activities in the Past 12 Months
- Household Businesses
· Establishing the existence of non-farm enterprises
· Business operations
· Operated land
· Crops planted and/or harvested last completed wet and dry seasons
· Crops planted and harvested in next to last season
· Disposition of crops
· Fertilizers and insecticides
- Household's Purchase and Selling of Durables the last 12 Months
- Income and Transfers
- Household's Borrowing and Lending
- Household's Diary Sheet for Household Transactions
- Time Use
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Ministry of Planning and Investment
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Sample Design and Selection
First Step: Description of Sample Village
The survey design for the LECS 4 uses the same methodology and sampling technique as used in the LECS 3. The sample selection is conducted in two steps. The first step is selection of sample villages using the zoom selection methodology according to the proportion of the population (PPS). Village unit is distributed according to the following echelon: village classified by province, district, rural area with access to road and rural area without access to road. The number of sample villages in each province is in between 17 to 48 villages depending on the number of villages, and the number of households in every survey area.
Comparing the last two surveys, LECS 3 and LECS 4, the number of sample villages is decreased from 540 to 518 villages. This is due to the situation of allocation and unification of small villages into larger villages, which in past years has appeared in every province in the whole country. In order to assure normal rule of distribution of sample, the number of sample households has been from 15 to 16 per village.
Each month the number of sample villages is almost the same, because the sample has been selected as zoom for every month.
Second Step: Selection of Sample Household
In the present expenditure and consumption survey half of the number of households are the same as households that were surveyed in the LECS 3, and the other half are new households that previously were not surveyed. The selection of households in the sample uses the zoom methodology on arbitrary and systematic basis. Selection of the 8 sample households from the survey of LECS 3 uses the zoom methodology on arbitrary basis by taking part in a lottery among LECS 3 households. New 8 sample household are selected among the other households in the village using the same methodology. Together the number of sample households in one village is 16. The selection of sample household is based on the number of existing households in the village at the time of the conduction of the survey. If the village has 16 or less households all households are covered by the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Each team comprised 1 supervisor and 2 enumerators for each village.
Data Collection Notes
The training for trainers and supervisors was conducted for 5 days at the Department of Statistics, Vientian Capital, with the participation of all staff from the Statistics Section from 17 provinces.
The training for enumerators lasted 11 days and was held at 4 points:
- first point at Sayabouly province from 8 provinces
- second point at Vientiane Capital for 2 provinces from center
- third point at Savannaket province for central part and
- fourth point at Champasack province for 4 provinces from south
Four questionnaires were used to collect the 2007-2008 LECS:
- Household Questionnaire
- Dairy Sheet
- Time USe Questionnaire
- Village Questionnaire
- Price Questionnaire
The survey data has been edited and data editing process include:
- Structure checking and completeness
- Checking and coding
Data entry has been done using MS ACCESS software.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors have been calculated for some important variables based on the confidence of 95% ("margin of errors").
Services Division, Department of Statistics
The Statistics Law of Lao PDR guarantees that identities of respondents are kept confidential.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
Authorization to use this data is granted to designated individuals in the concerned division of the Department of Statistics (DoS). Under no circumstances shall the authorized user reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in the DoS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Lao PDRDepartment of Statistics (DoS). Lao PDR Expenditure and Consumption Survey (LECS4) 2007-2008. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.