In most parts of the world, individuals, communities and their leaders struggle with the best way to address concerns about HIV and AIDS. For Botswana, like in many other countries, the HIV/AIDS epidemic represents one of the most serious social problems in recent history, especially for countries in the Sub Saharan Africa. Southern Africa holds the majority of the world's hard hit countries.
The first cases of HIV in Botswana were diagnosed in 1985. The rapid spread of the infection and AIDS in Botswana over the past 13 years has been tremendous. UNAIDS estimates indicate that by the end of 1999, at least one in four adults in Botswana was living with HIV.
Botswana like other countries, has implemented programs to improve the knowledge about how HIV is transmitted as well as strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The current strategies include Sentinel surveillance; i.e surveys which are conducted annually or biannually to obtain information on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, monitor trends of HIV/AIDS infection, provide information for program planning, monitoring and evaluation and assess the impact of intervention programs.
The Central Statistics Office conducted the 2001 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey. The Botswana Government provided funding and Botswana UNDP office assisted with consultancy fees for all consultants engaged at various stages of the survey.
The survey report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on the UNAIDS indicators.
The Botswana AIDS Impact survey was conducted to obtain more information on topics related to HIV/AIDS. The main objective of this survey was to provide information to:
- Assess whether programs are operating as intended
- Assess performance of intervention programs
- Asses whether people are changing their sexual behaviour
- Establish the proportion of people in need of care due to HIV infection
- Establish the proportion of people who are at risk of HIV infection
- Assess the impact of the pandemic at household level
- Provide information on issues related to the impact of HIV/AIDS on household and communities.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Statistics Office (CSO)
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning
Frame: The Botswana Multiple Indicator Survey (BMIS) of 2000 collected data on health indicators. The BMIS 2000 sample served as the sampling frame for the BAIS. Ninety eight (98) sample points out of 215 BMIS sampling points were selected. The target population in BAIS is the same as in BMIS.
Sample Design : The sample for the 2001 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey was designed to provide estimates of AIDS indicators at the national level, urban and rural areas, and for the fourteen districts: Gaborone , Francistown , Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe, Small towns (Jwaneng, Orapa, and Sowa), Southern, South East, Kweneng, Kgatleng, Central, North-East , North West , Ghanzi, and Kgalagadi.
A stratified two-stage probability sample design was utilised for the selection of the sample.
The first stage was the selection of Enumeration Areas (Eas) as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) selected with probability proportional to measures of size (PPS), where measures of size (MOS) are the number of households in the EAs as listed in MIS 2000. In all 98 EAs were selected with pps out of 215 EAs.
At the second stage of sampling, the households were systematically selected from a fresh list of occupied households prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork (i.e. listing of households for the selected EAs). Overall 2000 valid households were drawn systematically.
The sample is not self-weighting because it was stratified by districts.
Of the 2,126 households selected for the Botswana AIDS Impact sample, 2,023 were found occupied. Of these, 1,781 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 88.0 percent. The response rates in urban and rural areas were 90.3 percent and 85.8 percent respectively. In the interviewed households, 4,728 eligible persons aged 10-64 years were identified. Of these, 4,494 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95.1 percent.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Household Questionnaire : A household questionnaire was administered in each selected household, which collected information on various topics related to HIV/AIDS on household members including sex, age, marital status, education, water and sanitation, and orphanhood status.
The Household questionnaire contains the following topics:
- Demographic characteristics: Age, sex, marital status, place of usual living and citizenship.
- Parental survival and fostering
- Economic activity
- Deaths in household
- Care and support for sick people
- Water and sanitation
Individual Questionnaire: The individual questionnaire for the 2001 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey was based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. Some of the modifications include lowering the age limit of the eligible persons to 10 years, increasing the upper limit to 64 years and modifying some questions in order to adapt the questionnaire to Botswana situation. In addition to the household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for men and women aged 10-64 years. The individual questionnaire for men and women contains the following topics:
- Marriage and cohabiting partnerships.
- Sexual history and behaviour.
- Sexually transmitted diseases.
- Knowledge about HIV/AIDS and exposure to interventions.
- Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS and HIV testing.
- Child bearing and antenatal care.
Community Questionnaire : The community questionnaire aimed to obtain information a) about the perceived impact of AIDS on the community, b) the problems caused by AIDS, and c) the coping mechanism and responses developed by the community.
Before data entry was carried out, the questionnaires were edited to check if all the relevant questions have been responded to and coded according to the codes designed for the study. Data entry was carried out between February and March, 2001 by 8 data entry operators under the supervision of one programmer/supervisor. Consistency checks on the data set as per the Computer Edit Specifications designed by the subject matter specialist were performed. Data editing began in April and finished in June, 2001. The data tabulation and analysis was completed at the end of November.