Prior to the conduct of APIS, poverty statistics were only based on the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) which is conducted on a nationwide basis by the NSO every three years since 1985. FIES obtain data on the income and expenditures of families for one whole year. Other than poverty incidence, FIES also gives the distribution of families by income class, income decile distribution, sources of income, spending pattern by income class and poverty related indicators like housing characteristics. However, during periods when FIES is not conducted, there are no available statistics to use in assessing and monitoring poverty. Hence, APIS was undertaken.
APIS was first conducted in 1998 as a rider to October 1998 Labor Force Survey (LFS). It was funded by the European Union Meeting-Trust Fund through World Bank and United Nations Development Program. Relevant information on the impact and coping of the families to the Asian economic crisis and knowledge of women 15-49 years old in the family regarding family planning were revealed in the questionnaire. APIS 1998 also used APIS Form 1A questionnaire which gathered infrastructures and services availed in the sample barangay. These include street pattern, access to national road, presence of town/city hall and provincial capitol, chapel, plaza, cemetery, libraries, hospital, telephone, telegraph, etc. and the presence of establishments in the barangay.
In 1999, APIS was a rider to October 1999 LFS. The subsequent rounds of APIS were rider to the July round of LFS. The 1999, 2002, 2004, 2007 and 2008 APIS were locally funded.
APIS was not conducted in 2001 and 2005 due to budgetary constraints.
The 2008 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) is conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) as a rider to the July 2008 Labor Force Survey (LFS). The 2008 APIS is the sixth in the series of annual poverty indicators surveys conducted nationwide. Since 1998, APIS has been conducted during the years when the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) is not conducted, except in 2001 and 2005 due to budgetary constraints.
The APIS is a nationwide survey designed to provide non-income indicators related to poverty at the national and regional levels. It is designed to gather data on the socio-economic profile of families and other information that are related to their living conditions. Specifically, it generates indicators which are correlated with poverty, such as indicators regarding the ownership or possession of house and lot, the types of the materials of the roofs and walls of their housing units, their access to safe water, the types of toilet facility they use in their homes, and presence of family members of specified characteristics such as children 6-12 years old enrolled in elementary, children 13-16 years old enrolled in high school, members 18 years old and over gainfully employed, working children 5-17 years old and family members with membership in any health, life and/or pre-need insurance system.
The APIS is being undertaken by the National Statistics Office as mandataed by Commonwealth Act 591 which authorizes the then Bureau of the Census and Statistics, now NSO, "to conduct by enumeration, sampling or other methods, for statistical purposes, studies of the social and economic situation of the country" and in consonance with the provision of Executive Order 121 which designated the office as the "major statistical agency responsible for generating general purpose statistics.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01_M: Edited data, first version, for internal use only
The 2008 APIS questionnaire (APIS Form 1) contains the following sections:
Section A Identification and Other Information
Section B Demographic Characteristics
Section C Health Status
Section D1 Schooling Status
Section D2 Highest Grade Completed
Section E Economic Characteristics
Section F Housing
Section G Water and Sanitation
Section H Other Relevant Information
Section I Hunger
Section J Family Sustenance and Entrepreneurial Activities
Section K Other Sources of Income
Section L Other Receipts
Section M Family Expenditures
The description or intention of each section of the 2008 APIS questionnaire is presented below.
Identification and Other Information - contains information about the geographic identification (region, province, city/municipality and barangay, EA code, sample housing serial number and household control number), design codes (replicate, stratum, PSU No., rotation group and number of households in the housing unit) and result of visit to the sample housing unit/household.
Demographic Characteristics - obtains the demographic characteristics of each family member such as relationship to the family head, sex, age and marital status.
Health Status - obtains information on whether each family member got ill or injured a month prior to the survey and whether the illness and/or injury experienced by each member age 5 years or older is work-related or not.
Schooling Status and Highest Grade Completed - determines whether a family member aged 3 to 24 years is currently attending formal school, and if so, the grade or year level the member is currently attending. If the member is not currently attending school, then the reason for not doing so is also asked. It also determines the educational attainment of the family members 5 years old and over. This item also will give an idea on 'school readiness' among children in Grade 1 if they had attended preschool.
Economic Characteristics - obtains information on the employment status of each family member 5 years old and over. It also includes questions on occupation and business engaged in by the member during the past six months, and the salaries and wages from employment of each working family member.
Housing, Water and Sanitation - obtains information that relates to housing characteristics and household conveniences/amenities owned by the family. The main source of water supply and kind of toilet facility used were also asked.
Other Relevant Information - determines if any member of the family is a member of any health, life and/or pre-need insurance system, if any member of the family is aware of any government's program on affordable drugs/medicines, if any member of the family is a recipient of any scholarship grant from any government program or any private individual/organization, if any member of the family is aware of any lending institution or private individual whose business is lending money with interest, and if any member of the family availed of any loan, where was the loan availed of, and where did they use the money in the past six months.
Hunger - determines if any member of the family experienced hunger in the past 3 months because he/she did not have anything to eat and if any member of the family is aware of different government programs such as Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino, KALAHI-CIDSS, SEA-K, Programang Gulayan ng Masa, Tindahan Natin, Food for School, Farm to Market Roads, Patrabaho ni Pangulong Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Vocational Training, Pabasa sa Nutrisyon, Responsible Parenthood Movement Class.
Family Sustenance and Entrepreneurial Activities - determines if any member of the family is engaged in any of the following family sustenance and entrepreneurial activities: family sustenance activity, net share of crops, fruits and vegetables produced or livestock or poultry raised by other households, crop farming and gardening, livestock and poultry raising, fishing, forestry and hunting, wholesale and retail, manufacturing, community, social, recreational and personal services, transportation, storage and communication services, mining and quarrying, construction or entrepreneurial activities not elsewhere classified. This section asks for the total net income, value consumed and value given away as gifts of the products derived/produced from such activity.
Other Sources of Income - obtains information on other sources of family income not derived from work.
Other Receipts - obtains information on the sources of non-income receipts of families, that is, those that do not come from earnings, property income and gifts received.
Family Expenditures - determines the expenses made by the family purely for family members' personal consumption.
National Coverage Seventeen (17) Administrative Regions:
National Capital Region (NCR)
Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
I - Ilocos
II - Cagayan Valley
III - Central Luzon
IVA - CALABARZON
IVB - MIMAROPA
V - Bicol
VI - Western Visayas
VII - Central Visayas
VIII - Eastern Visayas
IX - Zamboanga Peninsula
X - Northern Mindanao
XI - Davao
XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
XIII - Caraga
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
The survey covered all households.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Office
National Economic and Development Authority
Government of the Philippines
National Statistical Coordination Board
The 2008 APIS is a sample survey designed to provide data representative of the country and its 17 administrative regions. The survey's sample design helps ensure this representativeness. The 2008 APIS used the 2003 master sample created for household surveys on the basis of the 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) results. The survey used four replicates of the master sample. For each region (domain) and stratum, a three-stage sampling scheme was used: the selection of primary sampling units (PSUs) for the first stage, of sample enumeration areas (EAs) for the second stage, and of sample housing units for the third stage. PSUs within a region were stratified based on the proportion of households living in housing units made of strong materials, proportion of households in the barangay engaged in agricultural activities and per capita income of the city/municipality.
As earlier mentioned, a three-stage sampling design was used in each stratum within a region. In the first stage, primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected with probability proportional to the number of households in the 2000 Census. PSUs consisted of a barangay or a group of contiguous barangays. In the second stage, in each sampled PSU, EAs were selected with probability proportional to the number of households in the 2000 Census. An EA is defined as an area with discernable boundaries consisting of approximately 350 contiguous households. In the third stage, from each sampled EA, housing units were selected using systematic sampling. For operational considerations, at most 30 housing units were selected per sample EA. All households in sample housing units were interviewed except for sample housing units with more than three households. In such a housing unit, three households were randomly selected with equal probability.
The 2008 APIS was conducted simultaneously with the July 2008 Labor Force Survey (LFS). All sample households of the July 2008 LFS were interviewed for the 2008 APIS. Only household members related to the household head by blood, marriage or adoption were considered as members of the sample household in APIS. Family members of the household head who are working abroad were excluded.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Of the 43,020 eligible sample households for the 2008 APIS, 40,613 were successfully interviewed. This translated to a response rate of 94.4 percent at the national level. Households which were not interviewed either refused to be interviewed or were not available or were away during the enumeration period.
The results presented in this report are weighted to ensure that the data are representative of the population of the Philippines and its regions. Sampling weights, or expansion factors, were applied to the data obtained from sample households in order to derive estimates for the larger population from which the sample households were selected for the purpose of survey interviewing. The weights or expansion factors applied to each sample household reflected the probability of the households being selected for the survey sample. More specifically, the basic sampling weights assigned were equal to the inverse of the joint probability of selection in the three stages of sample selection. Since the sample was self-weighting within regions (domains) or strata, each household in a particular stratum received the same weight, or raising factor.
The weights adjustment factor takes into account the sample EAs which were not enumerated and households which were not interviewed. The product of the basic weights and weights adjustment factor was used to obtain the preliminary weighted estimates of the total number of families.
In order to make the weighted estimate of the total number of persons by age group and sex consistent with the estimated number of persons by age group and sex as of July 2008, a final weight adjustment factor was used. The estimated number of persons by age group and sex, by region as of July 2008 was derived using 2000 Census-based population projection for the region. In each region, the final weight adjustment is equal to the ratio of the estimated number of persons by age group and sex as of July 2008 to the preliminary weighted estimate of the total number of persons by age group and sex from the 2008 APIS data.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Regional Directors (RDs) or the Regional Statisticians, the Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) or their Provincial Statisticians was provided with 5 mandays each for supervision. The District Statistics Officer (DSO) who was designated as the Provincial Over-all Supervisor was responsible for all interviewing teams in the province. He/She supervised during the entire duration of the APIS fieldwork. In general, one Team Supervisor (TS) was assigned to supervise three Statistical Researchers (SRs).
Selected Central Office Statisticians also supervised the field operation in the Regional and Provincial Offices.
The role of the supervisors include the following:
a) Observing some of the interviews to ensure that interviewers are conducting themselves well, asking the questions in the right manner, and interpreting the answers correctly;
b) Spot check some of the addressed selected for interviewing to be sure that interviewer interviewed the right household;
c) Review each questionnaire to be sure it is complete and is internally consistent;
d) Meet with each member of the team on a daily basis to discuss performance and give out future work assignments;
e) Help interviewers to solve any problems that he/she might have with finding the assigned households, understanding the concepts in the questionnaire or with difficult respondents
Data Collection Notes
In preparation for the APIS 2008, a pretest was conducted to test the redesigned questionnaire.
The redesigned questionnaire contains the abridged version of the module on entrepreneurial activities resulting to the reduction of the number of pages from 24 to 12. The decision to use the abridged version was based on the results of the study entitled “Redesigning APIS as a Poverty Monitoring Tool” undertaken by the Demographic and Social Statistics Division in 2006. The redesigned questionnaire produced results which are not statistically different from results based on the original design in 2004. The use of the redesigned questionnaire is also cost-efficient.
Prior to the conduct of the pretest, a briefing was conducted to discuss concepts and definitions and to familiarize on the content and skipping pattern of the questionnaire. On the second day of pretest, a debriefing was held.
There were three levels of training:
1. Task Force Training - This training was conducted at the NSO Central Office. It was attended by 17 participants from the Central Office and 17 participants from the regions (one participant per region). Each Regional Office (RO) designated one Provincial Statistician or one District Statistics Officer (DSO) from any of its Provincial Offices (PO).
2. Second-level Training - This training was held at the Regional Offices. The participants in each region were the Regional Director, the Regional Statistician, the Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs), the Provincial Statisticians and the DSOs who served as the over-all supervisor during the APIS field operation. Each PO designated a DSO, or if there was no DSO available for APIS, a statistical staff of the PO who have been involved in previous FIES or APIS and LFS served as provincial over-all supervisor for APIS.
3. Third-level Training - This training was held at the Provincial Offices. In each province, the participants were hired SRs who served as Team Supervisors or interviewers. The trainers were the PSO or the Provincial Statistician and the DSO who attended in the second-level training.
Data collection was conducted from July 8 to 31, 2008, including Saturdays.
The daily output rate of each interviewer was at least three completed APIS Questionnaire (APIS Form 1).
National Statistics Office
Although questions on 'Changes in Welfare' were dropped and some items were modified for the 2008 APIS, most of the questions/items in the previous APISs were retained as requested by data users. Nine items were added in order to generate data that will be more useful in assessing the poverty situation in the country. The new questionnaire for the 2008 contains the abridged version of the module on entrepreneurial activities resulting to the reduction of the number of pages from 24 to 12. The decision to use the abridged version was based on the results of the study entitled “Redesigning APIS as a Poverty Monitoring Tool” undertaken by the Demographic and Social Statistics Division in 2006. The redesigned questionnaire produced results which are not statistically different from results based on the original design in 2004. The use of the redesigned questionnaire is also cost-efficient.
A round table discussion was held for the 2008 APIS before the conduct of the pretest. The redesigned APIS questionnaire based from the project's output was presented. It was agreed upon during this meeting to adopt the redesigned APIS for this round of APIS, with the addition of item on 'Hunger'.
Flow of Processing Activity
In order to implement a systematic flow of the processing activities and reduce the movement of questionnaires from one employee to another, the same processor performed the following specific activities for the same folio.
1. General screening;
2. Editing and coding of APIS questionnaires and computations of totals ; and
3. General review of edited APIS questionnaire.
To facilitate handling during manual and machine processing, APIS questionnaires were folioed in the Provincial Office before the start of manual processing.
The APIS questionnaires for one sample barangay/EA contained in the folio was arranged consecutively according to the sample housing serial number (SHSN) from lowest to highest.
General screening was done by going over the submitted accomplished questionnaires and checking for the completeness of the geographic identification and other information called for in the cover page.
General screening for APIS questionnaires was done to ensure that the geographic and household identification and the entire sample households are the same with the MS Form 6.
General Instructions on Manual Processing
The following instructions was observed in manual processing.
1. Prior to editing and coding of items, the questionnaires were checked if they were properly folioed. Folioing was done in the province. Regional Offices checked if folioing was done properly by the Provincial Offices.
2. All questionnaires for one folio was assigned to only one editor/coder, unless otherwise necessary (e.g., when the one who is processing a folio is absent for more than a day).
3. In general, the editors assumed that the original entries are correct. Editing was done only when an entry is obviously incorrect. A doubtful or inconsistent item was verified in the field.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors have been calculated for the following variables:
1) Percentage of Families with Own or Ownerlike Possession of House and Lot they Occupy
2) Percentage of Families Living in Houses with Roof Made of Strong Materials
3) Percentage of Families Living in Houses with Outer Walls Made of Strong Materials
4) Percentage of Families with Electricity in the Building/House They Reside in
5) Percentage of Families with Access to Safe Water Supply
6) Percentage of Families with Sanitary Toilet
7) Percentage of Families with Children 6-12 Years Old in Elementary Grades
8) Percentage of Families with Children 13-16 Years Old in High School
9) Percentage of Families with Members 18 Years Old and Over Gainfully Employed
10) Percentage of Families with Working Children 5-17 Years Old
11) Average Family Income
12) Average Family Expenditure
A series of data quality tables were generated to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Highest grade completed versus current grade
- Highest grade completed versus age
- Current grade versus age
- Reason for not attending school versus highest grade completed
- Reason for not attending school versus current grade
- Marital status versus age
- Consistency of income vs. expenditure
This survey conforms to the provisions of confidentiality stated under Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 591, which says that the "Data furnished to the Bureau of Census and Statistics (BCS) now known as the National Statistics Office, by an individual, corporation, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall not be used as evidence in any court or in any public office either as evidence against the individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution, or business enterprise from whom such data emanates; nor shall such data or information be divulged to any person except authorized employees of the BCS acting in the performance of their duties; nor shall such data be published except in the form of summaries or statistical tables in which no reference to an individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall appear."
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The NSO shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
Any report, paper or similar articles, whether published or not, emanating from the use of this data shall give appropriate acknowledgement as suggested herein, “2008 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey, version 1.0, 07 May 2010, National Statistics Office, Manila, Philippines”, as the source of basic data. The data user or client is encouraged to provide NSO with a copy of such report, paper or article. It is understood that unless expressly allowed by the client, such report, paper or article shall not be used for any purpose other than monitoring.