The survey collected data on household income including, among others, sources of income in cash and in kind and levels of consumption by items of expenditure. In view of the need to update weights used in the current CPI series, detailed items up to 5-digit level were incorporated for collection of consumer expenditure in the survey.
The broad objectives of the survey were:
- to provide useful inputs for the compilation of national accounts of the household sector as well as statistics of distribution of household income and expenditure;
- to provide benchmark information to update weights required in the construction of consumer prices indices (CPI); and
- to provide inputs in the estimation of poverty threshold and its incidences.
Although this was not one of its explicit objectives, the HIES 2000 survey was also used to establish, for the first time and on a pilot basis, poverty lines for Bhutan. The objective was not to provide a comprehensive poverty profile. The main goal was to initiate discussion on the quantitative measurement of poverty, in view of the implementation of a more comprehensive living standards survey by the CSO in 2002. A detailed poverty assessment is expected to be produced and released in 2003. Due to limitations in the HIES 2000 data, users are invited to consider the poverty indicators presented in this report with care.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 2000 Bhutan Household Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following topics:
- Identification and Operational Particulars
- Household Characteristics
- Demographic and other Particulars of Household Members
- Household Consumption Expenditure
- Household Income
- Property and other Income
National except a few satellite towns which are neither recognized as urban areas nor or under the administrative control of chupon (block) headman in the rural areas.
The population coverage included all households in the country except the following:
- households of expatriates;
- residents of hotels, boarding and lodging houses, monasteries, school hostels, orphanages, rescue homes, ashram, vagrant houses, and under-trials in jails and indoor patients of hospitals, nursing homes etc.; and
- Barracks of military and para-military forces including the police.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Organization (CSO)
A stratified two-stage sampling design is generally used in the HIES, where stratification is by geographical areas and enumeration areas (EAs) of population census form the primary stage units (PSUs) in the urban areas and villages constitute the PSUs in the rural areas. Households form the second stage units (SSUs) of sampling. The PSUs are generally selected with probability proportion to size (PPS), size being the number of households enumerated in the population census. Equal number of households are selected from within each PSU to make the design self-weighted, which in turn makes the data processing efficient and easy to operate. Since the quality of information relating to number of households with the CSO could not be assessed and comparability of the information over the dzongkhags could not be ensured, it was decided not to use the available information as a measure of size for PPS selection. However, it was decided to use the available information for stratification and also for allocation of sample.
A stratified multi-stage sampling design was used in HIES 2000. The available information relating to number of households for each town and geog was used to stratify the country into the following four strata:
Stratum 1: Consisting of seven towns each having 850 or more households, viz. Thimphu, Phuentsholing, Gelephu, Punakha, Sandrup Jongkhar, Chhukha and Wangduephodrang.
Stratum 2: Consisting of remaining 15 towns.
Stratum 3: Consisting of 22 geogs each with at least 750 households.
Stratum 4: Consisting of the remaining 180 geogs.
Note: See detailed sample design in the analytical report which is presented in this documentation.
In spite of best efforts made by the enumerators and follow up attempts by the supervisors in most of the cases, there was non-response. As against a planned sample of 4, 000 households, the field staff were able to collect data from 3,854 households, which works out to a response rate of 96.3 per cent. Stratum 1 (large towns) accounted for about 80 per cent of non-response cases.
Reasons for Non-Response
Failure to establish contact with any adult member in the hh in spite of at least three attempts was the main reason reported by the field staff for non-response and this was so both in the urban and rural areas. There were, of course, some cases of refusal to co-operate, in particular in Thimphu. In most of these cases the concerned supervisor made sincere efforts to convince the head of the hh that data proposed to be collected would not only be of great help to the RGB in devising suitable development programs but also to the industrial units, trading community and the people of Bhutan. The head of the hh was assured that data proposed to be collected will remain confidential and not provided to the Revenue Department or any other organization in the RGB concerned with regulating Acts for industrial or trading activities etc. A few cases of non-response were converted into willing respondents.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The Central Statistical Organization (CSO) recruited a group of 80 enumerators for conducting the fieldwork of the first round of the survey. Most of the enumerators were students who had written the 12th grade examination in March 2000. CSO provided the services of nine staff members to work as supervisors on full time basis during the period of the survey. Head, Sample Survey and Data Processing Section (SSDPS), CSO was entrusted with the overall responsibility of organizing and conducting the field work.
Two comprehensive manuals, one for the enumerators and the other for the supervisors, were prepared. The training manual for the enumerators (TME) included basic concepts and definitions of different items of information, procedure for (i) listing of households, (ii) selection of sample households, and (iii) recording information in each of the blocks/subblocks of schedule 1. The training manual for supervisors (TMS) provided inter-alia detailed instructions for (i) undertaking rationalized supervision of the fieldwork, (iii) ensuring quality of data, and (iii) selection of chupons and sample households. A copy of the TME was provided to each enumerator, while each supervisor was given a copy each of TME and TMS.
Note: See detailed data collection information in the analytical report which is presented in this documentation.
Central Statistical Organization
In broad terms the household schedule comprised two sections, one dealing with household consumption and the other with household income. As background material for the collection and analysis of household income and expenditure, the schedule included provision for recording data on size, structure and composition of household, and activity particulars of members of the household.
Household expenditure includes details of common expenditure of the household for consumption as well as other purposes and personal expenditure of all individual members. Consumption includes not only consumption of items purchased but also consumption out of own production, own business stocks, items received as gifts or in exchange of goods and services, and own housing. The section on household consumption included a block dealing with sufficiency of food for household to serve as a rough indicator of poverty.
Household income includes individual incomes of all household members as well as the joint and composite income of household, both in cash and in kind. It also includes incomes from paid employment, entrepreneurial incomes, incomes from property and other sources like current transfers and benefits.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Bhutan Central Statistical Organization (CSO). Bhutan Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2000. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.