An improved version of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The HSES 2007/08 is an improved version of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (which had been conducted regularly since 1966) and was carried out between July 2007 and June 2008. It is the latest among other household surveys implemented by the NSO to evaluate the living standards of the Mongolian population such as the Assessment of the Living Standards of the Population of Mongolia, 1995; the Living Standards Measurement Survey, 1998; and the Household Income and Expenditure Survey/Living Standards Measurement Survey, 2002/03. The HSES is a permanent survey and every three years it will feature an extended version. This will not only allow monitoring poverty and living standards annually but also to capture additional information in order to help the government to design better policies.
The Mongolian NSO has implemented a series of household surveys designed to measure the socio-economic situation in the country, estimate the main poverty indicators, and measure progress towards the MDGs. These surveys were fielded in 1995, 1998, and 2002-03.
The most recent survey was fielded in 2002-03. This survey integrated the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) with Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) features to provide more thorough and complete analyses. The LSMS portion of the survey was administered to a sub-sample of all of the households that participated in the HIES. The total sample of the HIES was 11,232 households equally distributed over four quarters of one year (February 2002 through January 2003). The LSMS portion was administered to one-third of the households from the HIES. Households interviewed for the HIES in the first and second quarters were re-interviewed for the LSMS in March and April 2003, and households interviewed for the HIES in the third and fourth quarters were re-interviewed for the LSMS in May through July 2003. In total, 3,308 households were included in the LSMS subsample.
The 2007 Socio-Economic Survey (SES07) was designed to be comparable to the HIES-LSMS 2002-03 and to be a template for future efforts. In the future, the annual HIES will no longer be implemented, but rather will be replaced with the periodic HIES-LSMS survey.
The 2007-2008 Household Socio-Economic Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Identification Particulars and Geographic Identification / Location
- Household Demographic Characteristics / Household Roster
- Reproductive Health (for women aged 15-49 years)
- Jobs in Last 12 Months
- Wage Jobs
- Job Search
- Agricultural Production
- Non-farm Household Enterprises
- Other Income
- Savings and Loan
- Housing and Energy
- Durables Goods
- Non-food Expenditure and Consumption (last month / last 12 months)
- Purchases of Food during the Past Months (recall - urban households)
- Consumption of Food and Other Frequently Purchased Commodities (from diary- urban households)
- Consumption of Food during the Past 7 Days (recall - rural households)
- Population and Households (demographics of the community)
- Economy and Infrastructure
- Agriculture and Livestock
- Non-Agricultural Business
consumption/consumer behaviour [1.1]
economic conditions and indicators [1.2]
working conditions [3.6]
basic skills education [6.1]
general health [8.4]
land use and planning [10.2]
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND GROUPINGS 
Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags. Ulaanbaatar is the capital city and is subdivided into 9 districts, 121 khoroos and 1,035 khesegs. Each kheseg has approximately 200 households. The rest of the country is divided into soums and bags. One of the soums in each aimag is normatively considered as the aimag center, while the others are regarded as the rural area. Darkhan-Uul and Orkhon were the only two aimags were 24 bags were selected.
- Households (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
- Household members (defined as members of the household who usually live in the household, which may include people who did not sleep in the household the previous night, but does not include visitors who slept in the household the previous night but do not usually live in the household)
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office (NSO)
Government of Mongolia
World Bank, Mongolia
The World Bank
Funding of survey implementation
The sampling frame of the HSES was developed by the NSO based on population figures for 2005 from local registration offices. This updated sampling frame is crucial because the spatial distribution of the population had changed dramatically over the last years and any frame based on the Census 2000 would have not been relevant anymore.
The design of the survey recognizes three explicit strata: Ulaanbaatar, aimag centers, and rural areas and small towns. In addition, the sample was implicitly allocated by districts and khoroos in Ulaanbaatar, and by aimags in rural areas. Each aimag center was an explicit sub-stratum. The aimag of Govisumber was excluded from the sample due to its small size.
The selection strategy was different in each stratum: a two-stage process in urban areas and a three-stage process in rural areas. In Ulaanbaatar, first 360 khesegs were selected, and then 10 households in each kheseg. In aimag centers, first 12 or 24 bags were selected, and then 10 households in each bag.35 In rural areas, first 52 soums were selected, then 12 bags in each soum and finally 8 households in each bag. All 1,248 primary sampling units or clusters (khesegs, bags or soums) were selected with probability proportional to size and were randomly allocated into the 12 months of survey fieldwork. Thus the survey visited a random sub-sample of 104 clusters each month.
The use of this sampling procedure means that households living in different areas of the country have been selected with different probabilities. Therefore, in order to obtain representative statistics for each stratum and for the whole country, it is necessary to use sampling weights. These weights are applied to each household and correspond to the inverse of the probability of selection, calculated taking into account the sampling strategy.
The sample of 11,232 households was allocated as follows: 3,600 in Ulaanbaatar, 2,640 in aimag centers and 4,992 in rural areas and small towns. However, the actual sample used for this report is slightly lower: 3,571 households in Ulaanbaatar, 2,621 in aimag centers, and 4,980 in rural areas and small towns. The difference corresponds to 60 households that were excluded because they did not have complete information.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The overall data quality is to be considered of good standard. On the one hand, the large amounts of information that the HSES collects from households imposed new demands on operational strategies and data management compared to the previous HIES.
National Statistical Office
Parliamnet of Mongolia
Four questionnaires were used to collect information for the 2007-2008 SES:
- Household Questionnaire
- Diary Questionnaire (for recording household food consumption in urban households)
- Community Questionnaire
- Price Questionnaire
All procedures were streamlined and centralized, which is likely to have had a positive impact on the quality of the information. On the other hand, three different rounds of consistency checks were applied to the data: first during the data entry process, then during the compilation of the raw data files and finally during the preparation of this report. In all cases it was possible to compare these listings against the actual questionnaires filled out by the households (and at least during the first round of checks, some households were visited again) and the data were amended whenever a mistake was found.Databases for the HSES 2007/08 have been unified and data error checking was made (by using STATA program) in cooperation with working group.
Head, Population and Social Statistical Department
National Statistical Office
Head, Data processing and Technology Department
National Statistical Office
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- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
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The National Statistical Office of Mongolia and World Bank provide these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. They accept no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
DDI Document ID
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01: Adopted from "DDI-MNG-NSO-EN-HSES-200708-v1.0" DDI that was done by metadata producer mentioned in "Metadata Production" section.