Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) has been conducting the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) on a regular basis as the core survey to provide with very important data like income, expenditure, consumption and poverty situation. The first round of HIES was conducted in the Year 1973-74 in the independent Bangladesh. Since then, including the latest survey in 2010, BBS has successfully completed 15 rounds of HIES. The HIES data series generated by the BBS is considered to be the main data source for estimation of poverty and its correlates in Bangladesh.
Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) is one of the core activities of the BBS; it contains a wide range of socio-economic information at the household level that has strong influence in the decision making process for the government.
The main objectives of HIES 2010 were to:
• Obtain detailed data on household income, expenditure and consumption.
• Determine poverty profile with urban and rural breakdown.
• Provide information about standard of living and nutritional status of the population.
• Provide data to determine the weights of Consumer Price Indices (CPI).
• Provide household level consumption data for compiling national accounts estimates.
• Provide detailed information on health status and educational level of the population.
• Determine poverty estimates by administrative divisions and detailed socio-economic characteristics of the population and household.
• Provide benchmark data for formulation of appropriate policy for poverty reduction, improvement in standard of living and nutritional status of the population.
• Provide relevant data for monitoring of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS), Five year plan and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
• Provide data on type, volume and distribution of resources under different Social Safety Nets Programmes (SSNP).
• Provide data on disability, migration, remittances, microcredit and disasters management.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Individuals and households
The 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Information Roster
• Part A: Household Information
• Part B: Employment Information
• Part C: Social Safety Nets Programme
• Part A: Literacy and Educational Attainment
• Part B: Current Enrollment
• Part A: Illnesses and Injuries
• Part B: Child Health and Immunization
• Part C: Pre-natal and Post-natal care
• Part D: Disability
- Economic Activities and Wage Employment
• Part A: Activities
• Part B: Wage Employment
- Non-agricultural Enterprises
• Part A: Housing Information
• Part B: Shocks and Coping
- Agricultural Enterprises
• Part A: Landholding
• Part B: Crop Production
• Part C: Non-crop Activities; Livestock and Poultry; Livestock Products; Fish Farming and Fish Capture; and Farm Forestry
• Part D: Expenses on Agricultural Inputs
• Part E: Agricultural Assets
- Other Income and Assets
• Part A: Other Property and Assets
• Part B: Other Income
• Part C: Migration and Remittances
• Part D: Micro Credit
• Part A: Daily Consumption; Day 1 to Day 7 and Day 8 to Day 14
• Part B: Weekly Consumption (Day 1-7) and (Day 8-14)
• Part C: Monthly Non-food Expenditure
• Part D: Annual Non-food Expenditure
• Part E: Inventory of Durable Goods
A two stage stratified random sampling technique was followed in drawing sample of HIES 2010 under the framework of Integrated Multipurpose Sample (IMPS) design developed on the basis of the sampling frame based on the Population and Housing Census 2001. The IMPS design consisted of 1000 Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) throughout the country. There were 640 rural and 360 urban PSUs in the sample. The PSU was defined as contiguous two of more enumeration areas (EA) used in Population and Housing Census 2001. Each PSU comprised of around 200 households. In the first stage about one half, 612 is in exact out of total 1000 IMPS PSUs, were drawn. These PSUs were selected from 16 different strata. There were 6 rural, 6 urban and 4 SMA strata. In the second stage, 20 households were selected from each of the rural PSUs and also PSUs located in the municipal areas and SMAs. Thus, the HIES is a sub-set of IMPS.
According to the sample design, the survey has completed in one complete year (1st February, 2010 to 31st January, 2011). This has been done in order to capture the seasonal variations in a cycle of one year in income, expenditure and consumption pattern. This entire period of one year has been divided into 18 terms. In each term a total of 34 PSUs are covered to collect data from a total of 680 sample households. In HIES-2010, 12240 households were selected where 7840 from rural area and 4400 from urban area.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Strong supervision and quality control measures were adopted in HIES 2010. There were 34 teams, each team comprising of 2 enumerators-cum data entry operators and two female facilitators and one supervisor. In order to improve the quality of data collection, 34 supervisors were appointed to supervise the work of 34 teams. The Regional Statistical Officers from 23 Regional Statistical Offices and 11 Statistical Officers/Assistant Statistical Officer from the HQ were engaged as supervisors. In addition, 2 Supervisors and 4 enumerators were kept reserve for addressing emergencies Thus, the number of enumerators and supervisors were in fact 70 and 36 respectively. There were also eight Divisional coordinators to supervise and coordinate the activities of the enumerators and supervisors in their respective divisions. Thus, each team was composed of 5 members; 2 enumerators/cum data entry operators, 2 female facilitators and 1 supervisors. In HIES 2010, the tasks of supervisors were determined before commencement of the field work.
The supervisors were given the authority to examine all questionnaires completed by the field staff and verify that each interview has been carried out correctly and the questionnaires properly completed. Aside from the supervision by the field supervisors, the Divisional Coordinators from the headquarters frequently visited the sample areas and observed one or more interviews carried out by enumerators in every term and provide solution to any problem faced by the enumerators. Provisions were made for holding term-wise discussions of the supervisors with all of his team members in order to access the progress of the interviewer. The enumerators and female facilitator used this opportunity to inform the supervisors of any problem they faced during the period and the supervisors, in their turn, helped the enumerators in solving their problems.
Data Collection Notes
Training and Field Operation
Enumerators, data entry operators and the supervisors were given detail training on the survey before the field operation. There were 36 (including two reserve) enumeration teams for the survey. Each enumeration team was comprised of a supervisor, 2 enumerator cum data entry operators and two female facilitators. This team of five members was assigned to 1 PSU to collect data for a continuous period of 20 days.
During this period, for collecting information on food consumption, the households were divided into two groups each consisting of 10 households. Each enumerator collected information on food consumption of the households for 14 days by paying 7 visits. Iinformation on food consumption of previous two days were collected during each visit.
This time refresher training was organised for enumerators cum data entry operators, supervising officers and divisional co-ordinators after completion of the first round of data collection. The problems identified by the enumerators cum data entry operators during data collection and data entry, were discussed in the refreshers training and the possible solutions were given. This resulted in the improvement of the data quality in the subsequent rounds of the survey.
The questionnaire has been revised and updated for the Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010. In the HIES-2010 the consumption module was included in the main questionnaire as it was done in HIES 2005 & HIES 2000. Therefore, only one questionnaire was used for all the sections covered under the preview of the HIES 2010. The HIES questionnaire contains nine separate sections. The following four new sub- modules were included in HIES-2010:
2. Internal and external migration
3. Indebtedness, opening of bank accounts and savings
4. Household crisis and crisis management
Data Entry, Processing and Validation
The interviewers regularly entered all the information collected during the interview into the laptop at the end of the day. If they have noticed any inconsistency in the data, they went back to the relevant households and made required changes to remove the discrepancy. Once they has completed and checked the information, they must also “validate” the data entered through data entry programme that has the mechanism to check the information for accuracy. Thus, the data were cleaned and validated at the field level. The entered data were sent to the headquarters through Internet by the first week of the following month. Thus, data entry, cleaning and validation were completed in the HIES headquarters located in Dhaka, simultaneously along the survey work. After receiving all the data from the field, they were merged together for tabulation and thoroughly edited for any missing data or inconsistency in the data. Finally, tables were generated from the cleaned data using data analysis software like STATA, FoxPro and SPSS.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, or among data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
The original collector of the data, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010. Dataset downloaded from <http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx> on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, the International Household Survey Network, and The World Bank bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.