Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer Impact Evaluation 2009
Tanzania Pilot Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer Program was launched in February 2009 through the Tanzania Social Action Fund to target the most vulnerable households and improve education and health outcomes in the long run. The main objective of the pilot program and its impact evaluation was to test how a conditional cash transfer could be implemented through a community-driven development approach, and what systems may need to be in place to achieve positive results in mitigating the effects of the AIDS crisis.
The Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) is a community-driven development operation launched by the government of the United Republic of Tanzania in 2000, as one of the instruments to fight poverty.
In this Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCT) pilot, the community organizations were expected to handle much of the activities related to implementation of the cash transfer system, activities usually assumed by a centralized administration in other CCT programs. These activities included: screening of potential beneficiaries, communicating program conditions to potential beneficiaries, transferring funds to individual beneficiaries, and applying peer pressure for compliance with the program conditions.
To qualify for support, households should have had an orphan and vulnerable child or an elderly person (60 years and older). Payments to beneficiary households were made every two months, ranging from $12 minimum to $36, depending on the number of people in the household. The role of conditionalities was to ensure that children go to primary school, and that both the elderly and children visit health facilities. Five thousand households and 13,000 beneficiaries in Bagamoyo, Chamwino and Kibaha districts were targeted by the pilot. The program was completed in December 2011.
Given that this was the first time that a social fund agency was being used to implement a conditional program in Africa, and the first time that a CCT program was delivered using a community-driven development approach, a thorough and rigorous impact and process evaluation was conducted. A baseline survey was administered in 40 treatment and 40 control villages in February 2009. The follow-up survey was done in July-September 2011, and the final assessment was carried out in October 2012.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Bagamoyo, Chamwino and Kibaha districts.
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
David K. Evans
World Bank, Spanish Impact Evaluation Trust Fund
World Bank, Japanese Social Development Fund
At the household level, eligibility criteria for beneficiary households were based on household characteristics of the very poor that were defined by communities themselves through focus
group discussions. The criteria were that the households be: (a) very poor, (b) not receiving similar benefits in kind or cash from another program, and (c) home to an elderly person
(60+) or an orphan or vulnerable child (OVC). "Very poor" was defined by stakeholders as a household meeting at least three of the following characteristics: (1) lack of a basic dwelling
or shamba; (2) difficulty having two meals per day; (3) no adult member has worked in the last month; (4) children with clothes/shoes in poor condition; (5) family does not own
livestock; and (6) family does not own land.
The study was conducted in three districts - Bagamoyo (70 km from Dar es Salaam), Chamwino (500 km from Dar), and Kibaha (35 km from Dar). The baseline survey covered 80 villages (40 treatment and 40 control). All 80 villages within the three districts had community management committees that received financial training from TASAF and had successfully managed at least one TASAF-supported project. The villages were randomized into treatment and control groups, stratified on village size and district. Among villages of a similar size and in the same district, each village had an equal likelihood of becoming a treatment village (i.e., getting the cash transfers) or becoming a control village (i.e., does not receive the cash transfer). This maximized the likelihood that treatment and control villages were similar in unobserved characteristics as well as the measured characteristics.
Random selection of the control and treatment villages was done after vulnerable households had been identified in all 80 villages, in order to ensure comparability between vulnerable households identified in the treatment and control groups.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Economic Development Initiatives
The use of the survey data must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Development Data Group, DECDG
Generation of DDI documentation
Date of Production
First version of metadata documentation (May 2012)