Evaluating Impact on Human Development Indicators of Household Connection to Sewerage System 2011
Household Survey, Baseline
In Uruguay, while access to adequate sanitation is almost universal, the connection to sewerage networks falls below fifty per cent. Why households are choosing not to connect even when they have access to a sewerage network continues to puzzle water utilities and governments in Uruguay and the region. Lack of funds and inadequate knowledge are among the hypotheses.
Administracion de las Obras Sanitarias del Estado (OSE), the national water and sewage utility, with the support of World Bank's funding, has made strong efforts to increase household connection to the sewerage system. In 2005 OSE started the CREDIMAT program that created a line of credit for household's connections to the sewerage system.
Both the World Bank and OSE recognize the need for an accurate evaluation to help maximize household coverage and understand the impact of sewerage connectivity on human development outcomes, ultimately leading to more effective implementations in the future.
This impact evaluation study seeks to identify and measure the causal relationship between the sewerage connection of households in Treinta y Tres city and human welfare measured through health sector indicators - parasite presence in household members with and without a sewerage connection, and soil samples.
The baseline survey, conducted from March 2011 to May 2011, covered 1,386 households in Treinta y Tres city. The follow-up survey is planned for 2013, two years on from the baseline.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Edited data, first version, licensed access
The scope of the study includes:
- Household demographic characteristics,
- Health (all respondents; children 12 years old and younger),
- Water and hygiene,
- Toilets, latrine, sewage,
Treinta y Tres City
Producers and sponsors
Luis Alberto Andres
Administracion de las Obras Sanitarias del Estado (OSE)
World Bank, Spanish Impact Evaluation Trust Fund
World Bank - Netherlands Water Partnership Program in Water Supply and Sanitation
BNWP 2 - WSS
The municipality selected for the intervention was Treinta y Tres. In 2010, this city accounted for 12,450 water connections and only 7,375 sanitation connections, which constituted coverage of 59 percent with respect to the water connections.
In this city three neighborhoods with similar socioeconomic characteristics had been identified as possible candidates for the study. These neighborhoods were divided into 14 blocks that can be intervened independently, without risk of cross contamination since each of them represents a geographic basin. Administracion de las Obras Sanitarias del Estado (OSE) engineers have assessed the independence of the clusters by considering soil characteristics of the referred region, the inclination of each region and the characteristics of the sewerage system itself.
These 14 blocks host 912 households with mean incomes inside the pre-established limits, two schools and a local clinic.
In the baseline survey, 1,386 households (4,417 individuals) were interviewed: 473 (34%) as part of Internal Treatment and Internal Control Groups, and 524 households as part of External Groups. An External Group is a group that has already received the intervention and was connected to the sewerage system a few years before. External Groups were chosen to have similar initial socio-economic characteristics and conditions as Internal Control Groups and Internal Treatment Groups.
Detailed information about randomization and pairing, and comparison among External Group, Internal Control and Treatment Groups is available in "Measuring Human Development Outcomes through Water & Sanitation Connectivity" report in external resources.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The intervention was implemented the following way. First, neighboring blocks were grouped in seven pairs. Second, a lottery was organized to randomly choose which block of each pair is intervened first. The connection to the sewage system of all the households belonging to the selected block will be subsidized. Those blocks that were not selected for this first phase will be intervened in the second phase of the program.
Once the intervention is implemented, it is expected that at least 95 percent of the eligible households will be connected to the sewage system. To reach this goal, the government will subsidize all the household connections to the sewerage system. In addition, a formal agreement was signed by the local authorities committing themselves to ensure household connections.
Soil and feces samples from children under 12 years old were taken. The baseline questionnaire was prepared to measure characteristics, the chosen biomarkers, and perception indicators before the intervention was conducted in connected and unconnected households. Researchers identified as a relevant biomarker the prevalence of parasites in children younger than 12 years old.
The household questionnaire looked into household and individual characteristics, dwelling conditions, access to water, sewage systems and toilets, and knowledge of CREDIMAT program. Researchers also gathered soil samples and biometric information, such as presence of parasites in children younger than 12 years old.
Luis Alberto Andres
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
Luis Alberto Andres, World Bank; Darwin Marcelo, World Bank; Administracion de las Obras Sanitarias del Estado (OSE), Uruguay. Uruguay - Evaluating Impact on Human Development Indicators of Household Connection to Sewerage System (EIHCSS) 2011, Household Survey, Baseline. Ref. URY_2011_EIHCSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group, DECDG
The World Bank
Generation of DDI documentation
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
First version of survey information and external resources documentation.