UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
MICS surveys are typically carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops where experts from developing countries are trained on various aspects of MICS (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination).
Since the mid-1990s, the MICS has enabled many countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. MICS findings have been used extensively as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for the purpose of influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women around the world.
MICS1 (1995) - The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. The first round of MICS was conducted around 1995 in more than 60 countries.
MICS2 (2000) - A second round of surveys was conducted in 2000 (around 65 surveys), and resulted in an increasing wealth of data to monitor the situation of children and women. For the first time it was possible to monitor trends in many indicators and set baselines for other indicators.
MICS3 (2005-2006) - The third round of MICS, which was carried out in over 50 countries in 2005-06, has been an important data source for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals with 21 MDG indicators collected through MICS3 (particularly indicators related to health, education and mortality). MICS3 was also a monitoring tool for other international goals including the World Fit for Children, the UNGASS targets on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
MICS4 (2009-2011) - In response to an increased demand for data all over the world, starting from MICS4, UNICEF will be prepared to provide assistance to countries at more frequent intervals - every three years instead of every five years. This will provide the opportunity for countries to capture rapid changes in key indicators, particularly the MDGs.
The purpose was to collect information on the following indicators:
- Household general characteristics
- Salt iodisation
- Water and Sanitation
- Child labour
- Maternal and newborn health
- Birth registration and age
- Care of illness
Relatively few reproductive health-related and no AIDS-related questions were asked in the 1999 Georgian MICS. The reason for this was because a CDC Reproductive Health Survey was scheduled to be performed in Georgia in 2000 which would obtain detailed information on women reproductive issues and on HIV/AIDS.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The scope of Georgia 2000 MICS includes:
- Demographic information
- Household information
- Water and sanitation
- Maternal and newborn health
- Child labor
- Birth registration and early learning
- Care of illness
The survey regions are as follows:
3. Mtskheta-Tianeti, Shida Kartli
4. Kvemo Kartli, Samtskhe-Javakheti
5. Racha-Lechkhumi, Imereti
6. Guria, Samegrelo
Producers and sponsors
State Department of Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
The survey used multistage sampling method. A sampling frame was provided by the State Department for Statistics listing all regions, districts, strata, census enumeration units and census areas. The size of the smallest unit, census area, is 20-60 households (HHs), the following unit by size is the census enumeration unit incorporating 4-5 census areas with the size from 67 to 900 households; strata is the combination of 3-5 census enumeration areas and so on for the remaining units.
At the first stage census enumeration units (which were the primary sampling unit or PSU) were selected from the sampling frame, from each of the survey region using probability proportional to household size (PPS) method. At the second stage 35 housholds (40 in Tbilisi) were selected in each PSU using systematic sampling method, selecting every n-th HH depending on the size of the PSU. The sample size calculations were performed based on immunizations for children 15-26 months as it required the largest sample size. The details of the sample size calculations can be found in Appendix C. The decision was to sample 35 households in each PSU (40 in Tbilisi) and that a total of 474 clusters would be included in the survey.
The collection of data at the cluster level was divided into two stages. During the first stage 150 SDS interviewers obtained lists of households residing in 474 PSUs and using systematic sampling method (every n-th HH), selected 35 HHs (40 for Tbilisi) in each. For example, if the PSU size contained 350 HHs, every 10th HH was selected for the mini-interview. At this stage the SDS interviewers collected information only on HH composition for the selected HHs.
At the second stage, which took place during 7-30 June, 40 interviewers and 40 assistants from the National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) visited all the HHs having underfives using the HH composition information generated during the first stage. Some of the HHs with eligible children for the education/child labour module (5-16 years of age) were sampled. It was assumed that each HH had only one child 5-16 years of age and thus 150 HHs would need to be visited per region, with the exception of Tbilisi where 160 HHs were to be sampled because of a higher non-response rate. For the entire country, this resulted in the target of visiting 150 HH with children 5-16 years of age in six of the regions and 160 HH in Tbilisi, for a total of 1060 HH (150*6 + 160 = 1060). Because there were sometimes more than one child 5-16 years of age in the HH, the final sample size was approximated to 1400 for the education module and 1300 for the child labour module. A sample of HHs with no children was also obtained in each PSU to allow for more valid regional and national estimates for the water- and sanitation-related goals. In each survey region, 125 HHs (135 for Tbilisi) with no children were selected for a total of 885 HHs (125*6 + 135 = 885). These HHs without children were randomly selected from the SDS list.
Therefore, prior to initiating the second stage of sampling, the NCDC supervisors, using the SDS generated lists, determined the number of HHs to be selected in each PSU. All HHs with children less than five years of age were selected; HHs with children 5-16 years of age were systematically sampled to assure 150 were selected for each survey region (160 in Tbilisi); and HHs with nochildren were systematically sampled to assure 125 HH for each survey region (135 in Tbilisi). Thus, the NCDC interviewers had the identification numbers for each HHs they were to visit. Questionnaire modules for the household, underfives, and women's questionnaire were to be completed in all HHs visited. The education/child labour modules were to be completed only forthose HHs which were identified for this purpose.
The interviewer for his/her cluster had the ID numbers of the HHs with information on whichmodule to be completed in each of them.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
SDS training: supervisors went to the regional centers and conducted one-day training sessions for district interviewers. They also supplied interviewers with the instructions on how to select HHs within each cluster and how to conduct interviews; in which cases they had to replace HHs; and what was regarded as a “non-response.” In almost all cases HHs were selected from the lists of HHs collected from the district or village/town center. During that training the use of the rapid salt testing kit was demonstrated.
NCDC interviewers training: 7-day-long on how to complete the various modules of the questionnaire and on anthropometric techniques, plus a 3-day pilot test in Tbilisi.
Fieldwork took part at two stages. First mini-interviews were conducted where 17,000 households were visited by the SDS interviewers. During this stage data was collected on the composition of the households, namely on age distribution in order to identify target population eligible for interviewing. At this stage the salt was tested for iodisation. The fieldwork took two weeks with the participation of 150 interviewers.
At the second stage 40 NCDC interviewers and 40 interviewer assistants, visited already selected households for conducting MICS modules. The second stage lasted four weeks.
For testing salt, the MBI Kit part number 05-860-00 was used (MBI, T. Nagar, India). The particular kit used had an expiration date of 4/2000 and the following color codes: 0, 7ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm. For data coding purposes, the following three categories were used: < 15 ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm. This particular kit tests for potassium iodate; no kits were used to test for potassium iodide.
For the collection of weights, the UNICEF electronic scale was used (Seca UNICEF Electronic Scale 890). Lengths and standing heights were obtained using a portable length/height board. The weights of children was determined by measuring the mother’s weight first and then the mother and child combined. (Note: the UNICEF scale will automatically subtract the difference between the two weight measurements). Recumbent lengths was obtained in children less than 24 months of age and standing heights on older children.
Immunisation information was collected, when available, during the interview with the mother/primary care taker. In addition, immunization information was collected at the child’s immunization clinic (“policlinic”). Therefore, all immunization information is based on both parental and clinic immunization records. If there was a discrepancy between the mother/primary care takers information and the clinic record, the clinic record was used.
The data collection instruments were modeled on early draft versions of the UNICEF End-Decade Multiple Indicator questionnaires with some modifications specific to the Georgian situation. The final version of the End Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual was not available until February, 2000 and the Georgian MICS was performed in June, 1999. There were some slight modifications of the UNICEF/MICS forms between May 1999 to February 2000. The final version of the UNICEF/MICS forms can be found at www.childinfo.org.
The questionnaire was translated and adapted to local conditions by NCDC staff and one consultant for education/child labour module. The questionnaire was pilot tested 2 times, after which the translated version, skipping and coding was improved. When the final version was ready the questionnaire was sent to all participation institutions for providing comments.
A schematic of the different forms used and the age groups can be found in Figure 2 and the English translation of the forms can be found in Appendix C of the report.
Data entry took place in July. The data entry programme was written in Delphi 4, taking into account skipping and checking.
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