The 2006-07 Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 4,843 households, 4,987 women age 15-49, and 4,156 men age 15-49. The SDHS also included individual interviews with boys and girls age 12-14 and older adults age 50 and over. The survey of persons age 12-14 and age 50 and over was carried out in every other household selected in the SDHS. Interviews were completed for 459 girls and 411 boys age 12-14, and 661 women and 456 men age 50 and over.
The 2006-07 SDHS is the first national survey conducted in Swaziland as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. The data are intended to furnish programme managers and policymakers with detailed information on levels and trends in fertility; nuptiality; sexual activity; fertility preferences; awareness and use of family planning methods; breastfeeding practices; nutritional status of mothers and young children; early childhood mortality and maternal mortality; maternal and child health; and awareness and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The survey also collected information on malaria prevention and treatment.
The 2006-07 SDHS is the first nationwide survey in Swaziland to provide population-based prevalence estimates for anaemia and HIV. Children age 6 months and older as well as adults were tested for anaemia. Children age 2 years and older as well as adults were tested for HIV.
The principal objective of the 2006-07 Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS) was to provide up-to-date information on fertility, childhood mortality, marriage, fertility preferences, awareness, and use of family planning methods, infant feeding practices, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviour and prevalence of HIV and anaemia.
More specifically the 2006-07 SDHS was aimed at achieving the following;
- Determine key demographic rates, particularly fertility, under-five mortality, and adult mortality rates
- Investigate the direct and indirect factors which determine the level and trends of fertility
- Measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice of women and men by method
- Determine immunization coverage and prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory diseases among children under five
- Determine infant and young child feeding practices and assess the nutritional status of children 6-59 months, women age 15-49 years, and men aged 15-49 years
- Estimate prevalence of anaemia
- Assess knowledge and attitudes of women and men regarding sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, and evaluate patterns of recent behaviour regarding condom use
- Identify behaviours that protect or predispose the population to HIV infection
- Examine social, economic, and cultural determinants of HIV
- Determine the proportion of households with orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs)
- Determine the proportion of households with sick people taken care at household level
- Determine HIV prevalence among males and females age 2 years and older
- Determine the use of iodized salt in households
- Describe care and protection of children age 12-14 years, and their knowledge and attitudes about sex and HIV/AIDS.
This information is intended to provide data to assist policymakers and programme implementers to monitor and evaluate existing programmes and to design new strategies for demographic, social and health policies in Swaziland. The survey also provides data to monitor the country's achievement towards the Millenium Development Goals.
- Fertility in Swaziland has been declining rapidly, with the TFR falling from 6.4 births per woman in 1986 to 3.8 births at the time of the SDHS. As expected, fertility is higher in rural areas (4.2 births per woman) than in urban areas (3.0 births per woman). Fertility differentials by education and wealth are substantial. Women with no education have on average 4.9 children compared with 2.4 children for women with tertiary education. Fertility varies widely according to household wealth. Women in the highest wealth quintile have 2.9 children fewer than women in the lowest quintile (2.6 and 5.5 births per woman, respectively).
- Knowledge of family planning is universal in Swaziland. The most widely known method is the male condom (99 percent for both males and females). Among women, other widely known methods include injectables (96 percent), the pill (95 percent), and the female condom (91 percent). For men, the best known methods besides the male condom are the female condom (94 percent) and the pill and injectables (84 percent each).
- Children are considered fully vaccinated when they receive one dose of BCG vaccine, three doses each of DPT and polio vaccines, and one dose of measles vaccine. BCG coverage among children age 12-23 months is nearly universal (97 percent); coverage is also high for the first doses of DPT (96 percent) and polio (97 percent). The proportion of children receiving subsequent doses of DPT and polio vaccines drops slightly, with 92 percent of children receiving the third dose of DPT and 87 percent receiving the third dose of polio. Ninety-two percent of children had received a measles vaccination by the time of the SDHS. Overall, 82 percent of children age 12-23 months are fully immunised.
- In Swaziland, almost all women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey received antenatal care from health professionals (97 percent); 9 percent received care from a doctor, and 88 percent received care from a trained nurse or midwife. Only 3 percent of mothers did not receive any antenatal care
- Overall, 87 percent of children in Swaziland are breastfed for some period of time (ever breastfed). The median duration of any breast-feeding in Swaziland is almost 17 months. However, the median duration of exclusive breast-feeding is much shorter (0.7 months).
- In interpreting the malaria programme indicators in Swaziland, it is important to recognise that the disease affects an estimated 30 percent of the population where malaria is most prevalent (the Lubombo Plateau, the lowveld, and parts of the middleveld). Malaria is also seasonal, occurring mainly during or after the rainy season (from November to March). A substantial part of the SDHS fieldwork took place outside of this period.
- Results from the HIV testing component in the 2006-07 SDHS indicate that 26 percent of Swazi adults age 15-49 are infected with HIV. Among women, the HIV rate is 31 percent, compared with 20 percent among men. HIV prevalence peaks at 49 percent for women age 25-29, which is almost five times the rate among women age 15-19 and more than twice the rate observed among women age 45-49. HIV prevalence increases from 2 percent among men in the 15-19 age group to 45 percent in the age group 35-39 and then decreases to 28 percent among men age 45-49. HIV prevalence for women and men age 50 or over is 12 percent and 18 percent, respectively. Among the population age 2-14 years, 4 percent of girls and boys are infected.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-49
- Young adults age 12-14
- adults age 50 and over
The 2006-07 Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS) is a nationally representative survey. It was designed to provide estimates of health and demographic indicators at the national level, for urban-rural areas, and for the four regions of Manzini, Hhohho, Lubombo, and Shiselweni.
Unit of Analysis
- Women age 15-49
- Men age 15-49
- Young adults age 12-14
- adults age 50 and over
The population covered by the 2006 SWZDHS is defined as the universe of all women Ever-married women in the reproductive ages (i.e., women 15-49).
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
Macro International Inc.
Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini
U.S. Agency for International Development
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW)
Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
Technical support for design phase of the survey
Global Clinical and Viral Laboratory (GCVL)
Technical support for the training and laboratory processing for the HIV testing component of the survey
National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA)
HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care (HAPAC)
World Health Organisation
Population Services International (PSI)
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Global AIDS Programme
The 2006-07 SDHS was designed to provide estimates of health and demographic indicators at the national level, for urban-rural areas, and for the four regions of Manzini, Hhohho, Lubombo, and Shiselweni. Standard DHS sampling policy recommends a minimum of 1,000 to 1,200 women per major domain. To meet this criterion, the number of households selected in each of the various domains, particularly urban areas, was not proportional to the actual size of the population in the domain. As a result, the SDHS sample is not self-weighting at the national level, and weights must be applied to the data to obtain the national-level estimates.
The 2006-07 SDHS sample points (clusters) were selected from a list of enumeration areas (EAs) defined in the 1997 Swaziland Population and Housing Census. A total of 275 clusters were drawn from the census sample frame, 111 in the urban areas and 164 in the rural areas.
CSO staff conducted an exhaustive listing of households in each of the SDHS clusters in August and September 2005. From these lists, a systematic sample of households was drawn for a total of 5,500 households. All women and men age 15-49 identified in these households were eligible for individual interview. In addition, a sub-sample of half of these households (2,750 households) was selected randomly in which all boys and girls age 12-14 and persons age 50 and older were eligible for individual interview. In the SDHS households where youth and older adults were interviewed, all individuals age 6 months and older were eligible for anaemia testing and all individuals age 2 and older were eligible for HIV testing. In the SDHS households where only women and men age 15-49 were interviewed, children age 6 months to 5 years were eligible for the anaemia testing and women and men age 15-49 were eligible for anaemia and HIV testing.
During the household listing, field staff used Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to establish and record the geographic coordinates of each of the SDHS clusters.
The response rates are important because they may affect the reliability of the results. Of a total of 5,500 households selected in the sample, 5,086 were occupied at the time of the fieldwork. This difference between the number of selected households and the number of occupied households is due to structures being vacated or destroyed. Successful interviews were conducted in 4,843 households, yielding a response rate of 95 percent.
In the households interviewed in the survey, a total of 5,301 eligible women age 15-49 were identified. Interviews were completed with 4,987 of these women, yielding a 94 percent response rate. In the same households, a total of 4,675 eligible men age 15-49 were identified and interviews were completed with 4,156 of these men, yielding a male response rate of 89 percent. The response rates are slightly lower in the urban sample than in the rural sample, and lower among men than women. The principal reasons for non-response among both eligible men and women were refusal and the failure to find individuals at home despite repeated visits to the households. Men have lower response rates than women due to higher refusal rates, and more frequent and longer absence from the households, principally due to employment and their lifestyle.
A total of 2,750 households were selected in the sample, of which 2,543 were occupied at the time of the fieldwork. This difference between the number of selected households and the number of occupied households is due to structures being vacated or destroyed. Successful interviews were conducted in 2,410 households, yielding a response rate of 95 percent.
In the households selected for the youth and older adult survey, a total of 477 eligible girls and 439 eligible boys age 12-14 were identified. Interviews were completed with 459 girls and 411 boys, yielding response rates of 96 percent and 94 percent, respectively. The response rates for girls are the same for urban and rural areas. For boys, the response rate is slightly lower in urban than in rural areas (89 percent compared with 94 percent).
A total of 693 eligible women age 50 and over were identified. Interviews were completed with 661 of these women, yielding a 95 percent response rate. In the same households, a total of 492 eligible men age 50 and over were identified and interviews were completed with 456 of these men, yielding a male response rate of 93 percent. The response rates are slightly lower in urban than in rural areas, and lower among men than women.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Five types of questionnaires were used for the SDHS: a) the Household Questionnaire, b) the Woman's Questionnaire, c) the Man's Questionnaire, d) the Youth Questionnaire, and the e) Older Adult Questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaires were based on questionnaires developed for the MEASURE DHS programme. The Youth Questionnaire was adapted from the 2002 Nelson Mandela/HSRC Study of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. The SDHS questionnaires were developed in collaboration with a wide range of stakeholders. After the SDHS survey instruments were drafted, they were translated into and printed in the local language, Siswati, for pretesting.
a) The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The Household Questionnaire was also used to identify persons eligible for the individual interview. In addition, information was collected about the dwelling, such as the source of water; type of toilet facilities; materials used to construct the house; ownership of various consumer goods; use of bed nets; and care and free external support received by chronically ill household members and orphans and vulnerable children. The results of anthropometric measurement and anaemia testing were recorded in the Household Questionnaire, as was the information on the consent of eligible household members for the HIV testing.
b) The Woman's Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49 and covered the following topics:
- Background characteristics (age, education, religion, etc.)
- Birth history
- Knowledge and use of family planning methods
- Antenatal and delivery care
- Infant feeding practices including patterns of breastfeeding
- Childhood illnesses and treatment
- Marriage and sexual activity
- Fertility preferences
- Husband's background and woman's work status
- Adult (maternal) mortality
- HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour.
c) The Man's Questionnaire was shorter than the Woman's Questionnaire, but covered many of the same topics, excluding the reproductive history and sections dealing with maternal and child health.
d) The Older Adult Questionnaire obtained limited information on the background characteristics of the population age 50 and over and on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviour.
e) The Youth Questionnaire included questions on knowledge and attitudes about sex, and factors exposing youth to risk of abuse.
Central Statistical Office
All questionnaires for the SDHS were returned to CSO central office for data processing. The processing operation consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, data entry, double-entry verification, and resolving inconsistencies found by computer programmes developed for the SDHS. The SDHS data entry and editing programmes used CSPro, a computer software package specifically designed for processing survey data such as that produced by DHS surveys. Data processing commenced in August 2006 and was completed in April 2007.
The HIV testing was carried out at the NRL between August 2006 and June 2007.
Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2006-07 Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS) to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.