The 2010-2011 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-11 ZDHS) is one of a series of surveys undertaken by the Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) as part of the Zimbabwe National Household Survey Capability Programme (ZNHSCP) and the worldwide MEASURE DHS programme.
The 2010-11 ZDHS is a follow-on to the 1988, 1994, 1999, and 2005-06 ZDHS surveys and provides updated estimates of basic demographic and health indicators covered in these earlier surveys. Data on malaria prevention and treatment, domestic violence, anaemia, and HIV/AIDS were also collected in the 2010-11 ZDHS. In contrast to the earlier surveys, the 2010-11 ZDHS was carried out using electronic personal digital assistants (PDAs) rather than paper questionnaires for recording
responses during interviews.
The primary objective of the 2010-11 ZDHS is to provide up-to-date information on fertility levels, nuptiality, sexual activity, fertility preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, nutritional status of mothers and young children, early childhood mortality and maternal mortality, maternal and child health, and knowledge and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Household, individual, adult woman, adult male,
The sample for the 2010-11 ZDHS was designed to provide population and health indicator estimates at the national and provincial levels. The sample design allows for specific indicators, such as contraceptive use, to be calculated for each of Zimbabwe's 10 provinces (Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands, Masvingo, Harare, and Bulawayo).
Unit of Analysis
Household, individual, adult woman, adult male,
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency
ICF International, Inc.
MEASURE DHS project
United States Agency for International Development
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations Development Program
United Nations Children’s Fund
United Kingdom Department for International Development
Government of Zimbabwe
Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MOHCW)
National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL)
National AIDS Council (NAC)
Population Services International (PSI)
University of Zimbabwe (UZ)
Joint United Nations Programmes on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS)
Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC)
World Health Organization (WHO)
The sample for the 2010-11 ZDHS was designed to provide population and health indicator estimates at the national and provincial levels. The sample design allows for specific indicators, such as contraceptive use, to be calculated for each of Zimbabwe’s 10 provinces (Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands, Masvingo, Harare, and Bulawayo). The sampling frame used for the 2010-11 ZDHS was the 2002 Population Census.
Administratively, each province in Zimbabwe is divided into districts and each district into smaller administrative units called wards. During the 2002 Population Census, each of the wards was subdivided into enumeration areas (EAs). The 2010-11 ZDHS sample was selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design, and EAs were the sampling units for the first stage. Overall, the sample included 406 EAs, 169 in urban areas and 237 in rural areas.
Households were the units for the second stage of sampling. A complete listing of households was carried out in each of the 406 selected EAs in July and August 2010. Maps were drawn for each of the clusters, and all private households were listed. The listing excluded institutional living facilities (e.g., army barracks, hospitals, police camps, and boarding schools). A representative sample of 10,828 households was selected for the 2010-11 ZDHS.
All women age 15-49 and all men age 15-54 who were either permanent residents of the selected households or visitors who stayed in the household the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. Anaemia testing was performed in each household among eligible women and men who consented to being tested. With the parent’s or guardian’s consent, children age 6-59 months were also tested for anaemia. Also, among eligible women and men who consented, blood samples were collected for laboratory testing of HIV in each household. In addition, one eligible woman in each household was randomly selected to be asked additional questions about domestic violence.
A total of 10,828 households were selected for the sample, of which 10,166 were found to be occupied during the survey fieldwork. The shortfall was largely due to members of some households being away for an extended period of time and to structures that were found to be vacant at the time of the interview. Of the 10,166 existing households, 9,756 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 96 percent. A total of 9,831 eligible women were identified in the interviewed households, and 9,171 of these women were interviewed, yielding a response rate of 93 percent. Of the 8,723 eligible men identified, 7,480 were successfully interviewed (86 percent response rate). The principal reason for nonresponse among both eligible men and women was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the households. The lower response rate among men than among women was due to the more frequent and longer absences of men from the households. Nevertheless, the response rates for both women and men were higher in the 2010-11 ZDHS than in the 2005-06 ZDHS (in which response rates were 90 percent for women and 82 percent for men).
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Three questionnaires were used for the 2010-11 ZDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, and the Man’s Questionnaire. These questionnaires were adapted from model survey instruments developed for the MEASURE DHS project to reflect population and health issues relevant to Zimbabwe. Relevant issues were identified at a series of meetings with various stakeholders from government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and international donors. Also, more than 30 individuals representing 19 separate stakeholders attended a questionnaire design meeting on 8-9 February 2010. In addition to English, the questionnaires were translated into two major languages, Shona and Ndebele.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all of the usual members and visitors of selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including his or her age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. For children under age 18, survival status of the parents was determined. The data on age and sex obtained in the Household Questionnaire were used to identify women and men who were eligible for an individual interview. Additionally, the Household Questionnaire collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, ownership of various durable goods, and ownership and use of mosquito nets (to assess the coverage of malaria prevention programmes).
The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
- Background characteristics (age, education, media exposure, etc.)
- Birth history and childhood mortality
- Knowledge and use of family planning methods
- Fertility preferences
- Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care
- Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices
- Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
- Marriage and sexual activity
- Women’s work and husbands’ background characteristics
- Malaria prevention and treatment
- Awareness and behaviour regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
- Adult mortality, including maternal mortality
- Domestic violence
The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-54 in each household in the 2010-11 ZDHS sample. The Man’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health.
In this survey, instead of using paper questionnaires, interviewers used personal digital assistants to record responses during interviews.
In this survey, instead of using paper questionnaires, interviewers used personal digital assistants to record responses during interviews. The PDAs were equipped with Bluetooth technology to enable remote electronic transfer of files (e.g., transfer of assignment sheets from team supervisors to interviewers and transfer of completed questionnaires from interviewers to supervisors). The PDA data collection system was developed by the MEASURE DHS project using the mobile version of CSPro. CSPro is software developed jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau, the MEASURE DHS project, and Serpro S.A.
All electronic data files for the ZDHS were returned to the ZIMSTAT central office in Harare, where they were stored on a password-protected computer. The data processing operation included secondary editing, which involved resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions. Two members of the data processing staff processed the data. Data editing was accomplished using CSPro software. Office editing and data processing were initiated in October 2010 and completed in May 2011.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.