The DHS is intended to serve as a primary source for international population and health information for policymakers and for the research community. In general, DHS has four objectives:
- To provide participating countries with a database and analysis useful for informed choices,
- To expand the international population and health database,
- To advance survey methodology, and
- To help develop in participating countries technical skills and resources necessary to conduct demographic and health surveys.
Apart from estimating fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, DHS also covers the topic of child health, which has become the focus of many development programs aimed at improving the quality of life in general. The Indonesian DHS survey did not include health-related questions because this information was collected in the 1987 SUSENAS in more detail and with wider geographic coverage. Hence, the Indonesian DHS was named the "National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey" (NICPS).
The National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) was a collaborative effort between the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), the Institute for Resource Development of Westinghouse and the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). The survey was part of an international program in which similar surveys are being implemented in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The 1987 NICPS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- To provide data on the family planning and fertility behavior of the Indonesian population necessary for program organizers and policymakers in evaluating and enhancing the national family planning program, and
- To measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors which affect the change, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and availability of contraception.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
United Nations Population Fund
The 1987 NICPS sample was drawn from the annual National Socioeconomic Survey (popularly called SUSENAS) which was conducted in January and February 1987. Each year the SUSENAS consists of one set of core questions and several modules which are rotated every three years. The 1987 SUSENAS main modules covered household income, expenditure, and consumption. In addition, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, information pertaining to children under 5 years of age was collected, including food supplement patterns, and measurement of height, weight, and arm circumference. In this module, information on prenatal care, type of birth attendant, and immunization was also asked.
This national survey covered over 60,000 households which were scattered in almost all of the districts. The data were collected by the "Mantri Statistik", a CBS officer in charge of data collection at the sub-district level. All households covered in the selected census blocks were listed on the SSN 87-LI form. This form was then used in selecting samples for each of the modules included in the SUSENAS. This particular form was also used to select the sample households in the 1987 NICPS.
Sample selection in the 1987 SUSENAS utilized a multistage sampling procedure. The first stage consisted of selecting a number of census blocks with probability proportional to the number of households in the block. Census blocks are statistical areas formed before the 1980 Population Census and contain approximately 100 households. At the second stage, households were selected systematically from each sampled census block.
Selection of the 1987 NICPS sample was also done in two stages. The first stage was to select census blocks from the those selected in the 1987 SUSENAS. At the second stage a number of households was selected systematically from the selected census block.
The NICPS covered a sample of nearly 15,000 households to interview 11,884 respondents. Respondents for the individual interview were ever-married women aged 15-49. During the data collection, 14,141 out of the 14,227 existing households and 11,884 out of 12,065 eligible women were successfully interviewed. In general, few problems were encountered during interviewing, and the response rate was high--99 percent for households and 99 percent for individual respondents.
Note: See APPENDIX A in the report for more information.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
The household questionnaire was used to record all members of the selected households who usually live in the household. The questionnaire was utilized to identify the eligible respondents in the household, and to provide the numerator for the computation of demographic measurements such as fertility and contraceptive use rates.
The individual questionnaire was used for all ever-married women aged 15-49, and consisted of the following eight sections:
Section 1 Respondent's Background
This part collected information related to the respondent and the household, such as current and past mobility, age, education, literacy, religion, and media exposure. Information related to the household includes source of water for drinking, for bathing and washing, type of toilet, ownership of durable goods, and type of floor.
Section 2 Reproduction
This part gathered information on all children ever born, sex of the child, month and year of birth, survival status of the child, age when the child died, and whether the child lived with the respondent. Using the information collected in this section, one can compute measures of fertility and mortality, especially infant and child mortality rates. With the birth history data collected in this section, it is possible to calculate trends in fertility over time. This section also included a question about whether the respondent was pregnant at the time of interview, and her knowledge regarding women's fertile period in the monthly menstrual cycle.
Section 3 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning
This section is one of the most important parts of the 1987 NICPS survey. Here the respondent was asked whether she had ever heard of or used any of the family planning methods listed. If the respondent had used a contraceptive method, she was asked detailed questions about the method. For women who gave birth to a child since January 1982, questions on family planning methods used in the intervals between births were also asked. The section also included questions on source of methods, quality of use, reasons for nonuse, and intentions for future use. These data are expected to answer questions on the effectiveness of family planning use. Finally, the section also included questions about whether the respondent had been visited by a family planning field worker, which community-level people she felt were most appropriate to give family planning information, and whether she had ever heard of the condom, DuaLima, the brand being promoted by a social marketing program.
Section 4 Breastfeeding
The objective of this part was to collect information on maternal and child health, primarily that concerning place of birth, type of assistance at birth, breastfeeding practices, and supplementary food. Information was collected for children born since January 1982.
Section 5 Marriage
This section gathered information regarding the respondent's age at first marriage, number of times married, and whether the respondent and her husband ever lived with any of their parents. Several questions in this section were related to the frequency of sexual intercourse to determine the respondent's risk of pregnancy. Not all of the data collected in this section are presented in this report; some require more extensive analysis than is feasible at this stage.
Section 6 Fertility Preferences
Intentions about having another child, preferred birth interval, and ideal number of children were covered in this section.
Section 7 Husband's Background and Respondent's Work
Education, literacy and occupation of the respondent's husband made up this section of the questionnaire. It also collected information on the respondent's work pattern before and after marriage, and whether she was working at the time of interview.
Section 8 Interview Particulars
This section was used to record the language used in the interview and information about whether the interviewer was assisted by an interpreter. The individual questionnaire also included information regarding the duration of interview and presence of other persons at particular points during the interview. In addition to the questionnaires, two manuals were developed. The manual for interviewers contained explanations of how to conduct an interview, how to carry out the field activity, and how to fill out the questionnaires. Since information regarding age was vital in this survey, a table to convert months from Javanese, Sundanese and Islamic calendar systems to the Gregorian calendar was attached to the 1987 NICPS manual for the interviewers.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, and Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse, Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS)/ Demographic and Health Survey 1987. Ref. IDN_1987_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.