The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and to the 1991 IDHS. The 1994 IDHS was significantly expanded from prior surveys to include two new modules in the women's questionnaire, namely maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS. The survey also investigated the availability of family planning and health services, which provides an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning and child health care with the availability of services. The 1994 IDHS also included a household expenditure module, which provides a means of identifying the household's economic status.
The 1994 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs;
- Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning and child-care behavior with the availability of services;
- Provide data on household expenditures, which can be used to identify the household's economic status;
- Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS and 1991 IDHS);
- Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception;
- Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)
State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
Macro International Inc.
Technical assistance and some funding
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. For the implementation of its family planning program, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) has divided these provinces into three regions as follows:
- Java-Bali: DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali
- Outer Java-Bali I: Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi
- Outer Java-Bali II: Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timer, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya
The 1990 Population Census of Indonesia shows that Java-Bali accounts for 62 percent of the national population, Outer Java-Bali I accounts for 27 percent, and Outer Java-Bali II accounts for 11 percent. The sample for the 1994 IDHS was designed to produce reliable estimates of fertility, contraceptive prevalence and other important variables for each of the provinces and for urban and rural areas of the three regions.
In order to meet this objective, between 1,650 and 2,050 households were selected in each of the provinces in Java-Bali, 1,250 to 1,500 households in the ten provinces in Outer Java-Bali I, and 1,000 to 1,250 households in each of the provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, for a total of 35,500 households. With an average of 0.8 ever-married women 15-49 per household, the sample was expected to yield approximately 28,000 women eligible for the individual interview.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 35,510 households were selected for the survey, of which 34,060 were found. Of the encountered households, 33,738 (99.1 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 28,800 eligible women were identified and complete interviews were obtained from 28,168 women, or 97.8 percent of all eligible women. Generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the role to revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household or eligible woman.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
The 1994 IDHS used four questionnaires--three at the household level and one at the community level. The three questionnaires administered at the household level are the household questionnaire, an individual questionnaire for women, and the household expenditure questionnaire. The household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. A deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthropometric measurement of young children and their mothers. Topics covered in the 1994 IDHS that were not included in the 1991 IDHS are knowledge of AIDS and maternal mortality. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. Except for the household expenditure module, the questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were translated into Babasa Indonesia. The household expenditure schedule was adapted from the core Susenas questionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by BPS to collect data on various demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population.
The first stage of data editing was carried out by the field editors who checked the completed questionnaires for thoroughness and accuracy. Field supervisors then further examined the questionnaires. In many instances, the teams sent the questionnaires to CBS through the regency/municipality statistics offices. In these cases, no checking was done by the PSO. At CBS, the questionnaires underwent another round of editing, primarily for completeness and coding of responses to open-ended questions.
The data were processed using 16 microcomputers and the DHS computer program, ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Data entry and office editing were initiated immediately after fieldwork began. Simple range and skip errors were corrected at the data entry stage. Data processing was completed by November 1994, and the preliminary report of the survey was published in January 1995.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994. Ref. IDN_DHS_1994_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.