The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), which is part of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Project, is one of prominent national surveys in the field of population, family planning, and health. The survey is not only important nationally for planning and evaluating population, family planning, and health developments, but is also important internationally since IDHS has been designed so uniquely that it can be compared with similar surveys in other developing countries.
The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, and the 1994 IDHS. The 1997 IDHS was expanded from the 1994 survey to include a module on family welfare; however, unlike the 1994 survey, the 1997 survey no longer investigated the availability of family planning and health services. The 1997 IDHS also included as part of the household schedule a household expenditure module that provided a means of identifying the household's economic status.
The 1997 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs
- Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning, and child care behavior with the availability of services
- Provide household expenditure data that which can be used to identify the household's economic status
- Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality, and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS)
- Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception
- Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia
- Provide indicators for classifying families according to their welfare status.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)
State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
Macro International Inc.
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. For the implementation of its family planning program, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) has divided these provinces into three regions as follows:
- Java-Bali: DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali
- Outer Java-Bali I: Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi
- Outer Java-Ball II: Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timor, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya
The 1990 Population Census of Indonesia shows that Java-Bali accounts for 62 percent of the national population, Outer Java-Bali I accounts for 27 percent, and Outer Java-Bali II accounts for 11 percent. The sample for the 1997 IDHS was designed to produce reliable estimates of fertility, contraceptive prevalence and other important variables for each of the provinces and urban and rural areas of the three regions.
In order to meet this objective, between 1,650 and 2,050 households were selected in each of the provinces in Java-Bali, 1,250 to 1,500 households in the ten provinces in Outer Java-Bali I, and 1,000 to 1,250 households in each of the provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, for a total of 35,500 households. With an average of O.8 ever-married women 15-49 per household, the sample was expected to yield approximately 28,000 women eligible for the individual interview.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 35,362 households were selected for the survey, of which 34,656 were found. Of the encountered households, 34,255 (99 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 29,317 eligible women were identified, and complete interviews were obtained from 28,810 women, or 98 percent of all eligible women. The generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the rule to revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household or eligible woman.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
The 1997 IDHS used three questionnaires: the household questionnaire, the questionnaire on family welfare, and the individual questionnaire for ever-married women 15-49 years old. The general household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. The questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were translated into Indonesian. One deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthropometric measurement of young children and their mothers. A separate survey carried out by MOH provides this information.
The household questionnaire includes an expenditure schedule adapted from the core Susenas questionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by CBS to collect data on various demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population. The family welfare questionnaire was aimed at collecting indicators developed by the NFPCB to classify families according to their welfare status. Families were identified from the list of household members in the household questionnaire. The expenditure module and the family welfare questionnaire were developed in Indonesian.
The first stage of data editing was carried out by the field editors who checked the completed questionnaires for thoroughness and accuracy. Field supervisors then further examined the questionnaires. In many instances, the teams sent the questionnaires to CBS through the regency/municipality statistics offices. In these cases, no checking was done by the PSO. In other cases, Technical Coordinators are responsible for reviewing the completeness of the forms. At CBS, the questionnaires underwent another round of editing, primarily for completeness and coding of responses to open-ended questions. The data were processed using microcomputers and the DHS computer program, ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Data entry and office editing were initiated immediately after fieldwork began. Simple range and skip errors were corrected at the data entry stage. Data processing was completed by February 1998, and the preliminary report of the survey was published in April 1998.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1997. Ref. IDN_1997_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.