The 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) is designed to provide data for monitoring the population and health situation in Rwanda. The 2010 RDHS is the fifth Demographic and Health Survey to be conducted in Rwanda. The objective of the survey is to provide up-to-date information on fertility, family planning, childhood mortality, nutrition, maternal and child health, domestic violence, malaria, maternal mortality, awareness and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS, HIV prevalence, malaria prevalence, and anemia prevalence. A nationally representative sample of 13,671 women, age 15–49 from 12,540 surveyed households, and 6,329 men, age 15–59 from half of these households, were interviewed. This represents a response rate of 99 percent for women and 99 percent for men. The sample provides estimates at the national and provincial levels.
The main objectives of the 2010 RDHS were to:
- Collect data at the national level to facilitate calculation of essential demographic rates, especially rates for fertility and infant and child mortality, and to analyze the direct and indirect factors that determine levels and trends in fertility and child mortality
- Measure the levels of knowledge of contraceptive practices among women
- Collect data on family health, including immunization practices; prevalence and treatment of diarrhea, acute upper respiratory infections, fever and/or convulsions among children under age 5; antenatal visits; and assistance at delivery
- Collect data on the prevention and treatment of malaria, in particular the possession and use of bed nets among children under 5 and among women and pregnant women
- Collect data on nutritional practices of children, including breastfeeding
- Collect data on the knowledge and attitudes of men and women concerning sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and evaluate recent behavioral changes with regard to condom use
- Collect data for the estimation of adult mortality and maternal mortality at the national level
- Take anthropometric measurements in half of surveyed households in order to evaluate the nutritional status of children, men, and women
- Conduct confidential testing for malaria parasitemia using Rapid Diagnostic Testing in half of the surveyed households and anonymous blood smear testing at the National Reference Laboratory
- Collect dried blood spots (from finger pricks) for anonymous HIV testing at the National Reference Laboratory in half of surveyed households
- Measure hemoglobin level (by finger prick) for anemia of surveyed respondents in half of surveyed households.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Household, adult woman, adult man
National. The sample provides estimates at the national and provincial levels.
Unit of Analysis
Household, adult woman, adult man
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR)
Ministry of Health
United States Agency for International Development
United Nations Children’s Fund
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Global AIDS Program
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
United Nations Population Fund
Government of Rwanda
The sample for the 2010 RDHS was designed to provide population and health indicator estimates for the country as a whole and for urban and rural areas in particular. Survey estimates are also reported for the provinces (South, West, North, and East) and for the City of Kigali. The results presented in this report show key indicators that correspond to these provinces and the City of Kigali.
A representative sample of 12,792 households was selected for the 2010 RDHS. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 492 villages (also known as clusters or enumeration areas) were selected with probability proportional to the village size. The village size is the number of households residing in the village. Then, a complete mapping and listing of all households existing in the selected villages was conducted. The resulting lists of households served as the sampling frame for the second stage of sample selection. Households were systematically selected from those lists for participation in the survey.
All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the household or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In addition, in a subsample of half of all households selected for the survey, all men age 15-59 were eligible to be interviewed if they were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey.
The sampling frame used for the 2010 RDHS is the preparatory frame for the Rwanda General Population and Housing Census (RGPH), which will be conducted in 2012. Provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR), the sampling frame is a complete list of natural villages covering the entire country. Though it is preferable to work with a frame consisting of enumeration areas (EAs) because the natural villages are too variable in size, an EA frame is not available at the time of sampling design. The sampling frame that was available is the list of 14,837 natural villages, which contains the administrative characteristics for each village and village population. The village population comes from the national ID card project carried out in 2007-08, which may be under estimated compared with the population projection conducted in 2009 by NISR.
Rwanda's administrative units were reformed in 2006, so the country is currently divided into 5 provinces; 30 districts, 417 sectors, and 14,837 villages.The average village size is 610 residents, which is equivalent to 133 households. The sizes of the districts are quite homogeneous, varying from 2.7 percent to 4.4 percent. There is no urban-rural specification in the sampling frame because the urban-rural definition has not been released by the Ministry of Local Administration (MINALOC). It was expected that the urban-rural definition of the sampled villages will be determined during the data collection or in the office once the MINALOC releases the definition.
All of the 492 clusters selected for the sample were surveyed for the 2010 RDHS. A total of 12,792 households were selected, of which 12,570 households were identified and occupied at the time of the survey. Among these households, 12,540 completed the Household Questionnaire, yielding a response rate of nearly 100 percent.
In the 12,540 households surveyed, 13,790 women age 15-49 were identified as being eligible for the individual interview; interviews were completed with 13,671 of these women, yielding a response rate of 99.1 percent. Male interviews were conducted in every second household. A total of 6,414 men age 15-59 were identified in the subsample of households. Of these 6,414 men, 6,329 completed the individual interviews, yielding a response rate of 98.7 percent.
The response rates were slightly higher in rural areas for men, while for women they were almost the same in rural and urban areas.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
Three questionnaires were used for the 2010 RDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, and the Man’s Questionnaire. They are based on questionnaires developed by the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program and on questionnaires used during the 2005 RDHS and 2007-08 RIDHS surveys. To reflect relevant issues in population and health in Rwanda, the questionnaires were adapted during a series of technical meetings with various stakeholders from government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and international donors. The questionnaires were translated from English and French into Kinyarwanda.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households as well as to identify women and men eligible for individual interviews. Basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of household. For children under 18, survival status of the parents was determined. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on the following:
- Dwelling characteristics
- Utilization of health services and health expenditures for recent illness and injury
- Possession of iodized salt
- Possession and utilization of mosquito nets
- Height and weight of women and children
- Hemoglobin measurement of women and children
- Blood collection from women and children for rapid test and laboratory testing of malaria
- Blood collection from women and men for laboratory testing for HIV
The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49 and was organized by the following sections:
- Respondent background characteristics
- Reproduction, including a complete birth and death history of respondents’ children and information on abortion
- Pregnancy and postnatal care
- Child’s immunization, health, and nutrition
- Marriage and sexual activity
- Fertility preferences
- Husband’s background and woman’s work
- HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections
- Other health issues
- Adult mortality
- Relationship in the household
The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-59 living in every other household in the RDHS sample. The Man’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information as the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health or nutrition.
An instruction manual was also developed to support standardized data collection. All data collection instruments were pretested in June-July 2010. The observations and experiences gathered from the pretest were used to improve the instruments for the main survey data collection.
Data entry began on November 1, 2010, almost one month after the survey was launched in the field. Data were entered by a team of 15 data processing personnel recruited and trained for this task. They were assisted during these operations by 4 data verification and codification officers and 2 receptionists. Completed questionnaires were periodically brought in from the field to the National Institute of Statistics headquarters, where assigned agents checked them and coded the open-ended questions. Next, the questionnaires were sent to the data entry facility and the blood samples (DBS and malaria slides) were sent to the NRL to be screened for HIV. Data were entered using CSPro, a program developed jointly by the United States Census Bureau, the ORC Macro MEASURE DHS+ program, and Serpro S.A. Processing the data concurrently with data collection allowed for regular monitoring of teams’ performance and data quality. Field check tables were regularly generated during data processing to check various data quality parameters. As a result, feedback was given on a regular basis, encouraging teams to continue their high quality work and to correct areas in need of improvement. Feedback was individually tailored to each team. Data entry, which included 100 percent double entry to minimize keying error and data editing, was completed on April 21, 2011. Data cleaning and finalization was completed on May 27, 2011.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.