The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Balochistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was conducted by the Planning and Development Department, Government of Balochistan in May through September 2010. The survey provides valuable information about the health of young children and their mothers in Balochistan province of Pakistan. The survey aims to monitor progress towards achievement of the goals and targets set under international agreements, the Millennium Declaration adopted by 191 United Nations member states in September 2000, the Plan of Action adopted by 189 member states at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002 and commitments made at the 1990 World Summit for Children. Pakistan has committed itself to improving conditions of women and children under these agreements and to monitor progress towards this end.
A total of 12,378 households were sampled out of which 12,069 were found to be occupied at the time of survey of which 11,612 were successfully interviewed, giving a response rate of 96.2 percent. Questionnaires were completed for 1) households, 2) women aged 15-49 years and 3) mothers or caretakers of under-five children.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household: Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Insecticide Treated Nets, Child Labor, Hand Washing and Salt Iodization.
- Children under five: Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care during Illness, Malaria, Immunization, and Anthropometry.
- Women: Woman's Background, Marriage, Child Mortality, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Attitude toward Domestic Violence and Knowledge about HIV/AIDS.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-49 years, all children under 5 living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Planning and Development Department
Government of Balochistan
United Nations Children’s Fund
Technical and financial support
Australian Agency for International Development
Department for International Development
Federal Bureau of Statistics
Sample design and technical support
SoSec Consulting Services
Technical support for survey implementation
The primary objective of the sample design for the province of Balochistan, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the Balochistan level, for urban and rural areas, and for six regions of Balochistan, The six regions were defined as the sampling strata.
A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The target sample size for the Balochistan MICS was calculated as 12,378 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the indicators used were the immunisation, literacy rate, antenatal and postnatal care.
The resulting number of average households was 2,063 households which is the sample size needed in each region- thus yielding about 12,378 in total. The estimates of key variables would be valid at region level. The average number of households selected per cluster for the Balochistan MICS was determined as 12 and 16 households for urban and rural areas respectively, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, it was calculated that on an average 140 sample clusters would need to be selected in each region.
A combination of proportional and square root type of allocation was used to distribute total sample size to the six regions. A sample size in the range of 85 to 176 sample clusters was allocated to six regions. On the average 140 clusters were allocated to each region. Consequently, a sample of 844 (sample areas) clusters was fixed for the entire six regions of Balochistan province. In each region, the clusters (primary sampling units) were distributed to urban and rural domains, proportional to the size of urban and rural populations in that region. Meanwhile, a higher proportion of sample was allocated to urban domain and smaller region(s) to get reliable estimates.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Balochistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.135-139.
A total of 12,378 households were sampled, 12,069 were found occupied during data collection and 11,612 households were successfully interviewed, giving a response rate of 96.2 percent.
In the surveyed households, 18,958 women 15-49 years were identified as eligible for interview and 17,732 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 93.5 percent. In addition, 10,432 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaires while 9,734 children questionnaires were completed giving a response rate of 93.3 percent. Overall response rates of 90.0 and 89.8 percent are calculated for the women's and under-5's interviews respectively. Response rates at various levels are slightly low compared to MICS-3 undertaken in 2003 because of deteriorating law and order situation in Balochistan.
Response rates were slightly higher in rural compared to urban areas. The lowest response rate was noted for Nasirabad and Quetta regions. Culturally, rural residents are more cooperative and humble in dealing with visitors. Similar trends have been observed in other surveys as well (Balochistan-MICS, 2003; NIPS, 2008; Punjab-MICS, 2008).
Sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data.
The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum and PSU. The sampling fraction for the sample PSU in the stratum is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum.
A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non response is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum hi Number of occupied households listed in stratum h
After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. The non-response adjustment factors for women's and under-5's questionnaires are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed.
The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal the total sample size at the provincial level. Dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the provincial level performs normalization. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the women's and under-5's questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.08246123 and 3.8667738 in the 841 sample enumeration areas (clusters).
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and weighting each household, woman or under-5 with these sample weights performed analyses.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 16 survey teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Before starting the training, questionnaires and instructional material (instructional manual, transparencies, hands on exercises, handouts, and etc) were made available in the Urdu language to the trainee supervisors/ editors/ and interviewers. The training material was developed with assistance from MICS3 manual.
A total of 68 interviewers and 21 supervisors participated in the main fieldwork training, conducted for three weeks from 18 January, 2010. The trainers included Lead Consultant and data processing supervisor besides some subject specialists such as MNCH specialist. The training included lectures on interviewing techniques, discussion on the questionnaires, and mock interviews among trainees to acquire skills in asking questions. All interviewers were further trained in testing iodine in salt and taking the height and weights of all under-five children. Towards the end of the training, trainees spent two days conducting field interviews in areas not included in the sample. From among the trained pool of staff only those supervisors and interviewers were selected who performed well in the field practice, and participation in class and assessment test.
Data collection was done by 16 teams, each comprising three interviewers, one driver, and a supervisor. Height and weight measurement was taken by the interviewers who were assisted by the team supervisors. The fieldwork was started in mid-May, 2010 and lasted for five months.
Planning and Development Department
Government of Balochistan
The questionnaires are based on the MICS-4 model questionnaires, modified to fit the Balochistan social and cultural norms and in line with prevalence of certain diseases like IDV/AIDS. The questionnaires were translated into Urdu and then translated back into English. The questionnaires were then pre-tested in non-sampled areas and modified on the basis of pre-test feedback before application in the survey for data collection from the sample households. The pre-test assisted in modifications to wording and flow of the questions. While administering the questionnaires, field teams also tested the salt used for cooking in the households to determine iodine level in the cooking salt, and measured the height and weight of all children less than 5 years of age (0-59 months).
Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey:
• A household questionnaire was used to collect information on all de jure household members, household characteristics and to identify eligible women and individuals for detailed interviews. The household questionnaire included eight modules comprising: Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household characteristics' Insecticide treated nets, Child Labor, Hand Washing and Salt Iodization.
• A woman questionnaire to collect information from all women aged 15-49 years registered in the household questionnaire. The women questionnaire also included eight modules comprising: Woman's Background, Marriage, Child Mortality, Maternal and Newborn Health, Illness Symptoms, Contraception, Attitude toward Domestic Violence and Knowledge about HIV/AIDS
• A questionnaire for under 5 children, to be administered to mothers or caretakers living in the household, has seven modules, comprising: Birth Registration, Early Childhood Development, Breastfeeding, Care during Illness, Malaria, Immunization, and Anthropometry
The processing of the data entry started shortly after the fieldwork commenced. Completed questionnaires were received regularly from the field to SoSec office in Islamabad, where these were edited and entered by the data processing staff, specifically trained for this task. A well-qualified and experienced Data Analyst supervised the data processing. Other data processing personnel included questionnaire administrator and office editors who ensured that the expected number of questionnaires from each cluster was received and duly edited. Well trained Data Entry Operators worked on two shift basis using double entry system. The concurrent processing of the data was undertaken to advise field teams of problems detected during the data entry. Field check tables were timely generated and, as a result, specific feedback was given to the field teams to improve performance.
The data management was based on MICS3 Manual 2005, selected guidelines for undertaking MICS4 survey and technical support provided by UNICEF. CSPro version 4.0, duly modified in line with the Balochistan questionnaire, was used for data entry with interactive process using range, skip and consistency checks. Data processing involved the following steps to produce clean and edited data files.
• Entering all questionnaires for a cluster onto a data file
• Production of field check tables
• Checking the structure of the data file
• Entering the data a second time and then verifying the data file
• Backing up the checked and verified data file
• Performing secondary editing on the data file
• Backing up the edited final data file
The goal of secondary data processing was to produce analysis data files and to create the MICS4 standard tables, using model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF. Archiving and distribution of data files will be done after the MICS report is finalized. Secondary data processing involved the following steps:
• Bringing together all cluster data files into one data file
• Exporting the data to the SPSS software
• Recoding some variables to be used in analysis
• Calculating sample weights and adding to data files
• Computing wealth index and adding to data files
• Creating the tables required to analyse the data
Finally data was exported from CSPro to SPSS 18.0 software tabulation program for construction of analysis files (comprising HH: Household, HL: Household listing, WM: Women and CH: Children); production of tabulations; analysis of sampling errors/confidence intervals; and production of datasets and tabulations for report writing.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of under-fives in household and under-5 questionnaires
- Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of bednets and places for hand washing
- Observation of women's health cards
- Obsenation of under-Ss birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Balochistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.195-213.
Arif Hussain Shah
Planning and Development Department, Government of Balochistan
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
United Nations Children's Fund, Planning and Development Department, Government of Balochistan. Pakistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010 - Balochistan, Ref. PAK_2010_MICS-BAL_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.