The first Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) was conducted in 1993-1994 after the first nationwide Population and Housing Census (PHC) in 1991. The results from that survey were used to monitor the progress of the 1991-1993 Transitional Development Plan and as benchmark indicators for the First National Development Plan (NDP 1). The NHIES 2003-2004 was used to monitor the progress made during the inter-survey period. The third Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey was conducted in 2009-2010.
The Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) 2003-2004, internationally known as the Budget Survey, is the second of its kind to have been conducted in independent Namibia after the NHIES 1993-1994. Budget surveys are specialized statistical frameworks for monitoring and evaluation of socioeconomic policy performances on the one hand and on the other instruments for updating statistical infrastructure such as providing the basis for the re-basing of both National Accounts and the Consumer Price Index (CPI). According to the international best practices budget surveys should be undertaken at least once in five years. The purpose for this recommended frequency is to ensure the provision of relevant data timely to policy makers. However, budget surveys are quite costly due to their methodological requirement, which dictate that the data collection phase should cover a full calendar year. The expenditure on NHIES 2003-2004 up to date is in the range of Forty Million Namibian Dollars (N$ 40 million).
The main objectives of the NHIES 2003-2004 include providing data necessary for policy making at different sectors and levels as well as to evaluate and monitor various development programs. Hence the data would be used for the evaluation of the performance of NDP1 in the improvements of the welfare of Namibian people. It could also be used for estimation of benchmark indicators for the monitoring of development initiatives such as Second Development Plan (NDP2), Vision 2030, Poverty Reduction Strategy for Namibia, and National Human Resources Plan. The data will also be used in the National Accounts compilations, updating the basket of goods and services and the weights for the national consumer price index, welfare and poverty studies and nutritional studies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
The 2003 NHIES includes the following topics:
- Household demographic characteristics
- Household particulars
- Household roster
- Marital status
- Access to a clinic
- Access to water
- Toilet facilities
- Sources of income
- Income and expenditure
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission
National Planning Commission
Swedish International Development Agency
Technical and financial support
The target population of the NHIES 2003-2004 was the private household population of Namibia; i.e. excluding the institutional and homeless populations.
The sample design for the survey was a stratified two-stage cluster sample where the first stage units were geographical areas designated as PSUs and the second stage units were the households. The first stage units were selected from the sampling frame of PSUs using probability proportional to size sampling coupled with systematic sampling procedure. At the second stage households were selected systematically from a current list of households within the PSU, which was compiled just before survey interviews.
Sample size was determined in order to make reliable estimates at the regional and urban/rural levels within each region. It was also decided to represent both urban and rural strata in every survey round to eliminate seasonal effects. The number of households per PSU was fixed at 20.
The final sample consisted of 10,920 households in 546 PSUs. The selected PSUs were randomly allocated to the 13 survey rounds so that each survey round would constitute a random sample of 42 PSUs and 840 households. A survey round was a period of 4 weeks, during which the households participated in the survey.
The data was raised from sample level to totals (population, households, consumption etc.) for Namibia using the sample weights. Sample weights were calculated based on the probabilities of selection at each stage. The final sample weights were the product of the first and the second stage weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The structure approved by the Public Service Commission of Namibia consisted of a Survey Manager and two Deputy Survey Managers. The NHIES management team was assisted by a core of permanent staff and a number of both short and long term external consultants in the execution of the survey.
Regional offices were established under regional supervisors in every region and these were the focal points for all survey operations in each region. During field data collection, a team composed of a supervisor, a listing/coding clerk and 2 interviewers covered each primary sampling unit (PSU).
Data Collection Notes
The NHIES 2003-2004 was conducted under the provisions of the Statistics Act 66 of 1976.
The fieldwork of the NHIES 2003-2004 started with the deployment of Regional Supervisors, Assistant Regional Supervisors, Team Supervisors, Listing Clerks and Interviewers in all thirteen administrative regions of the country. There were two major fieldwork activities: the main survey activity, which was undertaken from 1 September 2003 to 29 August 2004, comprising of 13 survey rounds, and the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) undertaken in October 2004. The main objective of the PES was to serve as a quality check of the main survey.
Logistics for data collection included provision of vehicles, materials, equipment and supplies to the field staff. About 60 vehicles were acquired for the survey, whereas additional ones were leased from Government Garage and car rental firms.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission
Two questionnaires (Form 1 and Form 2) were developed for data collection in the survey. Form 1 collected individual information including age, education, marital status, etc. and household information such as type of dwelling, assets, and details on household expenditure and income. Form 2, the Daily Record Book (DRB), was designed for recording, on a daily basis, all households’ transactions during the survey round. Households were instructed to record transactions, item by item, all expenditures and receipts, including incomes and gifts received or given out.
The data capturing process for the NHIES was undertaken in the following ways: Form 1 was scanned, interpreted and verified using the "Scan", "Interpret" & 'Verify" modules of the Eyes & Hands software respectively. Some basic checks were carried out to ensure that each PSU was valid and every household was unique. Invalid characters were removed. The scanned and verified data was converted into text files using the "Transfer" module of the Eyes & Hands. Finally, the data was transferred into a SQL database for further processing, using the "TranScan" application.
The Daily Record Books were manually entered and this was carried out after the scanned data has been transferred to the database. The reason was to ensure that all DRBs were linked to the correct Form 1, i.e. each household's Form 1 was linked to the corresponding Daily Record Books. In total, 10 000 questionnaires (Form 1), comprising around 400 questions each, were scanned and almost one million transactions from the Form 2 (DRBs) were captured.
Data cleaning was carried out in two (2) phases:
- Verification: To ensure that the data from questionnaires (Form 1 & Form 3) were correctly interpreted by the scanner.
- Consistency Checks: Various variables from different parts of the questionnaires were compared and/or checked for consistency.
To facilitate the data cleaning process some scripts were developed for the retrieval of scanning errors and inconsistencies in Form 1. Error lists were produced for verification and corrections. The corrections and/or data updates were done using the "DBEdit" application. The "DRB" application was used for corrections of the DRBs’ transactions. In parallel with manual update scripts, other scripts for automatic updates were developed to update data directly in the databases without the need to print out an error list. All these applications, such as "TranScan", "DBEdit", and "DRB" were in-house developed.
For easy presentation of data, a SuperCross output database was created as a result of converting the cleaned SQL database into a SuperCross format. All tables were produced in SuperCross, well known for being fast, accurate and user friendly.
Government of Namibia
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics, Namibia National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) 2003-2004, Ref. NAM_2003_NHIES_v01_M_v01_A_PUF. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 03 (November 2017)
- Changed the following:
- DDI ID
- ID number
- ID on citation requirements
Version 02 (September 2015)
- Provided value labels for all categorical variables
- Additional document on external resources provided