The Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) currently constitutes one of the largest socio-economic household survey databases on Tanzania. Since 2003 EDI has interviewed roughly 20,000 households in 35 different districts. For 9 districts repeat surveys were organised to track changes over time.
Rationale: Absence of district level survey data does not rhyme with the devolution of power to districts. Tanzania is undergoing a decentralisation process whereby each of its roughly 128 districts is becoming an increasingly important policy actor. A district taking on this challenge needs accurate information to monitor and develop its own policies. Much relevant information is currently not available as national statistics are not representative at district level and many of the routine data collection mechanisms are still under development. CWIQ then provides an attractive, one-stop survey-based method to collect basic development indicators. Furthermore, the survey results can be disseminated - through Swahili briefs and posters - to a district's population; thus increasing the extent to which people are able to hold their local governments accountable. Exciting new ground is being broken on such population-wide dissemination by the Prime Minister's Office.
Methodology: The data are collected through a small 10-page questionnaire, called the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ). The questionnaire and data software constitute an off-the-shelf survey package developed by the World Bank to produce standardised monitoring indicators of welfare. The questionnaire is purposively concise and is designed to collect information on household demographics, employment, education, health and nutrition as well as utilisation and satisfaction with social services. Questionnaires are scannable, with interviewers shading bubbles and writing numbers later recognised by the scanning software. The data system is fully automated allowing the results to roll out within weeks of the fieldwork.
Funding: projects are typically funded by organisations that care about making decentralisation work in Tanzania. CWIQ is a method to promote evidence-based policy formulation and debate in the district and a tool for the population to hold their local governments accountable. With funding from the RNE (Royal Netherlands Embassy) and SNV (Stichting Nederlands Vrijwilligers), CWIQ surveys were implemented between 2003-2005 in 16 districts. In 2006/07 PMO-RALG (Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government) commissioned EDI to cover a further 28 districts. In 9 of these districts this constituted a repeat survey and thus a unique opportunity arises to monitor changes that occurred in the district over this time period.
Dissemination: EDI disseminated the results of CWIQ on posters and briefs to district level stakeholders (councillors, district officials, NGOs, CBOs, Advocacy Groups, MPs, 'interested citizens', etc.), with the aim at district level, to: (i) promote evidence-based policy debate, (ii) promote evidence-based policy formulation, (iii) provide tools for district level M&E and (iv) increase accountability of LGA to citizens.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
EDI Ltd (Economic Development Initiatives)
Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government
PMO - RALG
The CWIQ surveys were sampled to be representative at district level. Data from the 2002 Census was used to put together a list of all villages in each district. In the first stage of the sampling process villages were chosen proportional to their population size. In a second stage the subvillage (kitongoji) was chosen within the village through simple random sampling. In the selected sub-village (also referred to as cluster or enumeration area), all households were listed and 15 households were randomly selected. In total 450 households in 30 clusters were visited. All households were given statistical weights reflecting the number of households that they represent.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
CWIQ is an off-the-shelf survey package developed by the World Bank to produce standardised monitoring indicators of welfare. The questionnaire is purposively concise and is designed to collect information on household demographics, employment, education, health and nutrition, as well as utilisation of and satisfaction with social services. An extra section on governance and satisfaction with people in public office was added specifically for this survey.
The standardised nature of the questionnaire allows comparison between districts and regions within and across countries, as well as monitoring change in a district or region over time.
The 2006/7 questionnaire is in Swahili, but it closely follows the 2000 generic CWIQ questionnaire, which is included in external resources, and all variables and values are labeled in English.
Economic Development Initiatives
The data entry was done by scanning the questionnaires, to minimise data entry errors and thus ensure high quality in the final dataset.
Joachin De Weerdt - Research Director
EDI Ltd (Economic Development Initiatives)
- Public use files, accessible to all
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
EDI Ltd (Economic Development Initiatives).Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire - Survey on Poverty, Welfare Services (CWIQ) 2006-2007 . Ref. TZA_2006_CWIQ_v01_M. Downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on 29 March 2011.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.