The original objective for collecting a detailed household information in Albania was to provide the data to support the research program "Decentralizing Safety Nets: Community Choices and their Impact on Households." One of the main components of the research program was the evaluation of the distributional impact of the efforts of decentralizing the social assistance program, the Ndhime Ekonomica (NE), at the household level.
The data collected for the Employment and Welfare Survey include information on household composition, education, current and past employment, level of expenditure, health outcomes, and other important household characteristics such as assets and quality of housing. The data collected include all dimensions of household characteristics which makes it important in analyzing the original goals of the research project as well as to perform many other welfare and poverty studies.
The survey covered approximately 1,500 households in rural and urban areas, excluding Tirana. The data collection took place between August and November 1996.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The electronic data files derived from the survey and prepared for analysis include 35 hierarchical data files. The names of the files follow the same pattern and structure as the questionnaire. Some of the files are organized at the household level, some of them at the individual level, and some of them at the food commodity level, depending on the type of information included in the file. Each file contains identification variables that allow for the merging and matching of the information to create new files that contain the variables needed for the analysis.
Each household can be uniquely identified using the household identification variable hhnum. Individual level files have an individual code in addition to the household code: pcode (individual id code). Other files of a different level of aggregation have additional identifiers. For example the food expenditure files have a unique code for each commodity that has been consumed by the household: fooditem (code of food).
National (except Tirana)
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
The data collected cover approximately 1,500 households in rural and urban areas, excluding Tirana. Tirana was not included because it had been the focus of another household survey in 1994. The sample was designed to maximize the inclusion of poor areas to increase the number of program participants.
The sample was drawn using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure separately in the rural areas and in the urban areas.
Detailed description of the sampling procedure is available in "Basic Documentation, Albania: Employment and Welfare Survey", pp.2-7.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
The household questionnaire design follows the general principle of a Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) survey.2 It includes variables necessary to describe and model several dimensions of the household in detail. The employment section contains information on current employment and a section on job history. The expenditure section contains detailed food and non-food expenditures that can be used to calculate levels of welfare. The sections on employment status and history, and social assistance contain specific details to respond to the needs of the original research purpose.
Detailed nutrition and anthropometric data were not collected. An agreement had been made with UNICEF that they would follow the same households and collect those data a few months after the initial survey. Unfortunately, the political situation prevented this from happening.
Consulting company MOLSP
The data entry program was designed using IMPS, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. The program was designed in such a way to follow the same layout as the questionnaire and included three types of data checks: a) range checks; b) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies pertinent to a particular section of the questionnaire; and c) inter-record checks to determine inconsistencies between the different sections of the questionnaire.
The 58 data files that resulted from the key entry of data from the 50 communes and the 8 bashkies were re-grouped into 35 files organized according to the sections of the questionnaire.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Albania Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Albania Employment and Welfare Survey 1996. Ref. ALB_1996_EWS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.