The Household Consumption Expenditure Surveys have been conducted by Central Statistical Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia since 1995/96 at four or five year intervals. The 2010/11 HCES is the fourth survey in the series; previous surveys were conducted in 1995/96, 1999/2000, and 2004/05.
The Household Consumption and Expenditure (HCE) survey is administered by the Central Statistical Agency every five years, most recently in 2010/11. The core objective of the HCE survey is to provide data that enable to understand the income dimension of poverty and the major objectives are to:
• Assess the level, extent and distribution of income dimension of poverty.
• Provide data on the levels, distribution and pattern of household expenditure that will be used for analysis of changes in the households' living standard level over time in various socio-economic groups and geographical areas.
• Provide basic data that enables to design, monitor and evaluate the impact of socio- economic policies and programs on households/individuals living standard.
• Furnish series of data for assessing poverty situations, in general, and food security, in particular.
• Provide data for compiling household accounts in the system of national accounts, especially in the estimation of private consumption expenditure.
• Obtain weights and other useful information for the construction and /or rebasing of consumer price indices at various levels and geographical areas.
The 2010/11 Household Consumption Expenditure Survey included the following topics:
- Household identification
- General livelihood status of the household and its members
- Demographic characteristics and economic activity of household member
- Consumption of food, beverages and tobacco
- Household expenditure on non-durable goods and more frequent services
- Expenditure on clothing and footwear
- Dwelling rent, maintenance, household equipment and operation
- Medical expenses, purchase of transport and communication tools
- Expenditure on education, recreation and entertainment, cultural and sport goods and services
- Expenditure on personal goods, financial services, household non-consumption expenditures and other payments
- Survey implementation status
The 2010/11 HCE survey covered all rural and urban areas of the country except the non-sedentary populations in Afar (three zones) and Somali (six zones).
The survey covered households in the selected samples except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Funded the study
The 2007 Population and Housing Census served as the sampling frame from which the rural and urban EAs were selected. A fresh list of households for each selected EA was collected at the beginning of the survey period. Households were then selected for inclusion in the survey by choosing a random number as the starting point in the list and selecting every nth household (n being the necessary number to achieve the desired number of households in each EA).
Sample Design & Selection
In order to produce a representative sample, the country was stratified into the following four categories: rural, major urban centers, medium towns, and small towns.
a. Category I - Rural
This category consists of the rural areas of 68 zones and special weredas, which are considered zones, in 9 regions of the country. This category also includes the rural areas of the Dire Dawa City Administration. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used, with the primary sampling unit being the EAs. Sample EAs were selected using Probability Proportional to Size, with size being the number of households identified in the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Twelve households were randomly selected from each sample rural EA for survey administration. The total sample for this category is 864 EAs and 10,368 households.
b. Category II - Major Urban Centers
This category includes all regional capitals as well as five additional major urban centers with large populations, for a total of 15 major urban centers. These 15 urban centers were broken down into the 14 regional capitals and the 10 sub-cities of Addis Ababa City Administration resulting in a total of 24 represented urban domains. A stratified two-stage sample design was also used for this category as in the rural sample with EAs as the primary sampling unit. For this category, however, 16 households were randomly selected in each EA. In total, 576 EAs and 9,216 households were selected for this category.
c. Categories III & IV - Other Urban Centers
These two categories capture other urban areas not included in Category II. A domain of other urban centers was formed from 8 regions (all except Harari, Addis Ababa, and Dire Dawa where all urban centers are included in Category II). Unlike the other categories, a three-stage sample design was used. However, sampling was still conducted using probability proportionate to size. The urban centers were the primary sampling units and the EAs were secondary sampling units. Sixteen households were randomly selected from each of the selected EAs. A total sample of 112 urban centers, 528 EAs, and 8,448 households were selected for these two categories.
In the rural part of the country it was planned to cover 864 Enumeration Areas (EAs) and 10,368 households. However, due to various reasons 2 EAs and 47 households were not covered by the survey. The overall response rate is 99.8 percent for EAs and 99.5 percent for households. For urban areas 1104 EAs and 17,664 households were planned to be covered ultimately, 100 percent of EAs and 99.1 percent (i.e. 17,513 Households) of households were successfully covered by the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
In survey of this type, regular and intensive supervision is necessary and crucial component of the whole data collection process. A regular supervision, which is also compulsory activity in the CSA surveys, has been undertaken at various levels to ensure the quality of the data. The data collection activities of each team had been managed by the team's supervisor/ field editor who was responsible the supervision, field editing and coordination activities. In order to follow the overall coordination and supervision activities at branch office level, each branch office assigned one statistician for the HCE survey data activities only. The statistician had undergone a close supervision and follow up on the overall HCE data collection activities. Moreover, branch office heads and professionals from the head office that were engaged in the training of the field staff were also involved in the actual field supervision. A team comprised of the top management of CSA, experts from CSA and experts from Finland Statistics had also visited the fieldwork of the survey twice in the survey period.
Data Collection Notes
The CSA branch offices led by the Branch Office Desks at the Head Office did the major work of the field organization. All the 25 branch offices of the CSA had fully participated in the survey undertaking, starting from recruitment of field staff, sending the trainees for training, in deploying the field staff to their field, field supervision and retrieval of the completed questionnaires periodically to the head office where the data processing activities took place. They were also responsible for administering financial and logistics aspects of the survey. Additionally, line government organizations especially Kebele's also had a significant role in facilitating the fieldwork. Writing administrative letters that introduce the work and the enumerators to the local people particularly the sample households, provision of field guides, etc. were tasks of the local government units.
Data was collected over the course of one year, from 8 July 2010 to 7 July 2011. The CSA branch offices organized a total of 82 data collection teams, which consisted of 2 enumerators and 1 supervisor/field editor. Each of these teams was responsible for administering the HCE survey in at most 24 EAs, with each EA taking roughly 15 days per team.
In each rural EA, 12 households were selected, and in each urban EA, 16 households were selected. Two enumerators (one team) were assigned to each EA such that the enumerators each collected data from 6 rural households or 8 urban households per EA. Data was collected in such a way that each household was visited by the same enumerator twice within one week. Enumerators were able to visit 2 households per day in rural areas and 2-3 households per day in urban areas. Including multiple visits to each household was essential to minimizing the effects of recall error.
To further check the robustness of the data, a variety of recall periods were used for some variables. For example, each household was asked to estimate their total rent expenditure in the last 3 months as well as the last 12 months.
In addition to the HCE, a market price survey was administered simultaneously in markets in or nearest each sample EA. This price data served as a comparison for household-reported values as well as a potential source to complete values when households could not report it themselves.
A hard copy (Paper print) booklet type questioner has been used for data collection. The design of the questionnaire has structured/organized into five main parts (forms).
The main components of the survey questionnaire are:
Form 0: is used together basic household information that could help to assess the general livelihood nature of a household and its members, such as: source of household income, status and scope of agriculture engagement (diversity and specialization), safety net/asset accumulation participation, participation in micro and small scale business enterprise, accessibility and/or credit facility status from micro-finance institution, …etc.,
Form 1: has been used to collect data on demographic characteristics and economic activity of household members, such as: age, sex, marital status, education, income contribution status, economic activity and other related variables.
Form 2 (2A & 2B): is used to collect actual consumption (quantity consumed) and equivalent expenditure of food, beverages and tobacco items, that would have been actually consumed by the household (members of the household) within the reference period of the survey. Note that the first three consecutive day's consumption being collected in Form 2A and 2B is used to collect the second phase (consecutive 4 days) of the survey week.
Form 3 (3A, 3B & 3C): Household consumption and expenditure data on non-durable goods and frequent services has been collected using three segments of form 3. Of which 3A and 3B are designed to handle three and four day's data, respectively; while 3C has been used to capture a full month reference data.
Form 4 (4A-4E): Household expenditure data of durable goods and Less-Frequent services was administered in form 4.
In order to facilitate a systematic way of data collection approach, these goods and services are grouped into classes and data were collected using five chapters of the main module in such a way that expenditure data on:
• Clothing and footwear was collected in 4A;
• Dwelling rent, water, fuel and energy, furniture's & furnishing, household equipment and operation were collected by use of form 4B;
• Health, transport and communication goods and services has been collected in form 4C;
• Education, recreation, entertainment, cultural and sport goods and services were collected by the use of 4D; and
• Personal goods and services, financial services, and others including operational cost of production with respect to unincorporated household economic enterprises;
Dairy book: Consumption expenditure of food and beverages data are collected, at first on daily basis, by listing every consumed item by the household (every household member) in each day in a dairy book, to facilitate exhaustiveness of consumption. And, then a summary of attributes are transferred to the main questionnaire.
Measuring tools: Kitchen balance (digital type in urban and analog type in rural areas) and measuring type are used for consumption/quantity data collection.
All data processing was undertaken at the head office. Completed questionnaires were returned to the CSA data processing department from the field periodically. Data processing activities included cleaning, coding, and verifying data as well as checking for consistency. These activities were carried out on a quarterly basis after entering three months of data. Further processing, including the estimation of sampling weights, was carried out at the close of data entry.
Data Entry and Coding
Manual editing and coding of data began as early as August 2010, when the first round of completed questionnaires was received at the head office. A team of 21 editors, 5 verifiers, and 4 supervisors carried out these activities. Subject matter experts provided a 5-day intensive training for this team to equip them with the necessary skills. Additionally, a team of 12 encoders was trained to enter the data. A double-entry system was used, wherein two separate encoders manually entered each survey. Any discrepancies between the two entries were flagged automatically and the physical survey was reviewed to correct the errors. Data entry was completed in October 2011.
Data Validation and Cleaning
Data validation and cleaning was carried out by subject matter experts and data programmers. Systematic validity checks were completed at the commodity, household and visit levels. Activities related to consistency, validity, and completeness included the following:
a. Imputation of missing observations on consumption goods (in quantity or value) using the market price survey that was collected at the time of the HCE.
b. Validity and consistency of quantity and value of consumption items was checked by comparing the figures across both household visits (using the household-provided prices and/or the market price survey).
c. Estimation of the value of consumption of own production using the household-provided quantities and market survey prices.
d. Comparison of household expenditure on durable goods using different recall periods (i.e., 3 and 12 months). After analyzing the annualized values using each reference period, it was decided to use whichever period resulted in the largest expenditure, which was often the shorter recall period. The logic behind doing so is that households are more likely to forget to include items the more time has elapsed since the consumption.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of estimation procedures total, ratio and sampling errors, and standard errors and coefficients of variations of selected variables are presented in Annex II and Annex III of the 2010-11 Household Consumption Expenditure Survey Statistical Report.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) 2010-2011. ETH_2010_HCES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Economics Data Group
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (September 2015)
- Additional datasets provided
- Providing value labels for all categorical variables