The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2011 was the fourth round of WMS conducted in Ethiopia focused on wider range of socio-economic indicators that reflect the non-income dimensions of poverty. The 2011 WMS has been improved to accommodate users' need as much as possible. New features in the current survey included shocks and coping mechanisms, HIV/AIDS related information, estimates of orphan and foster children, major prevailing diseases, plot size and other additional variables.
The main objective of the Welfare Monitoring Survey is to provide data that enable to understand the non-income aspects of poverty and has the following specific objectives:
1.To assess the level, extent and distribution of non-income poverty;
2. To assess the quality of life of households/individuals;
3. To provide basic data that enables design, monitor and evaluate the impact of socioeconomic policies and programs on household's /individual's living standard;
4. To provide basic indicators on household's and individual's living standard with respect to basic needs including:
Education, Health, Child Care and breast feeding, access to and utilization of basic facilities, Housing and housing amenities (drinking water, sanitation, energy, etc.), Household assets, selected indicators of living standard, harmful traditional practices and basic population characteristics.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individuals (including adult women aged 15 and above, children aged 5 and below)
The 2011 welfare monitoring survey included the following topics:
- Identification particulars
- Demographic characteristics and economic activity of household members
- Child care and breastfeeding
- Housing standard and amenities
- Food security indicators
- Access, utilization and satisfaction of basic facilities
- Dwelling and land ownership status and other fixed assets
- Harmful traditional practices
The 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey covered all rural and urban areas of the country except the non-sedentary areas in Afar and Somali Regional States. Excluded are three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali Regions.
The 2010 Welfare Monitoring Survey covered all rural and urban areas of the country except the non-sedentary areas in Afar and Somali Regional States. Excluded are three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali Regions.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The list of all households obtained from the 2007 Population and Housing Census was used as a frame to select the sample EAs in the rural and urban areas of the country. The frame from which sample households were selected was based on a fresh list of households taken at the beginning of the survey period in each of the selected EAs.
For the purpose of representative sample selection the country was divided into four broad categories including rural category, major urban centers category medium and small size town’s category.
Category I - Rural: This category consists of the rural areas of 68 zones and special weredas, which are considered as zones, in 8 regions of the country. This category also includes the rural part of both Harari region and Dire Dawa City Administration. The rural part of each Region including Harari and Dire Dawa City Administration were considered to be a survey domain (i.e. reporting level) for which the major findings of the survey are reported. This category totally comprises 10 reporting levels. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs was used to select samples. Twelve households per sample EA were selected as a second Stage Sampling Unit (SSU) to which survey questionnaire were finally administered to the members of sampled households.
Category II - Major Urban Centers: In this category all regional capitals and five other major urban centers that have relatively larger population size (totally 15 urban centers) were included. Each of the 14 urban center and 10 Sub cities of Addis Ababa administration a total of 24 urban domains are taken us a reporting level. In this category too, a stratified two stage cluster sample design was adopted to select the primary sampling units (the EAs). Sixteen households from each of the primary sampling units (EAs) in each reporting level were then selected as a Second Stage Unit (SSU).
Category III & IV - Other Urban Centers: Urban centers in the country other than those under category II were grouped under these categories. A domain of other urban centers is formed for eight regions (excluding Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa administration). There is no domain in category III & IV for Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa administration as they do not have urban centers other than those grouped under category II. Unlike the above two categories, a stratified three stage cluster sample design was adopted to select samples from these categories. The primary sampling unit was urban centers and the second stage sampling unit was EAs. Sixteen households from each of the selected EAs were finally selected as a third stage sampling unit.
Sample Size and Selection Scheme
Category I: A total of 864 EAs and 10,368 households were selected from this category. Sample EAs of each reporting level were selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) with systematic sampling techniques; size being number of households obtained from the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Twelve households per EA were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey.
Category II: In this category 576 EAs and 9,216 households were selected. Sample EAs from each reporting level in this category were also selected using probability proportional to size with systematic sampling techniques; size being number of households obtained from the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Sixteen households in each of the selected EAs were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey.
Category III & IV: One hundred twelve urban centers, 528 EAs and 8,448 households were selected in these two categories. Urban centers from each domain as well as EAs in each urban center were selected systematically using probability proportional to size; size being the number of households obtained from the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Sixteen households in each of the selected EAs ultimately were systematically selected from the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey. In total, including region rural, region urban and country domains, a total of 66 reporting levels were formed under this design. Annex I provides estimation procedures of total, ratio and sampling errors, annex II provides the standard errors and CVs of selected variables , annex III distribution of planned and covered samples by region and annex IV the questionnaire in English version respectively.
In the rural part of the country it was planned to cover 864 enumeration areas (EAs) and 10368 households, whereas in the urban areas, it was planned to cover 1104 enumeration areas (EAs) and 17664 households. The response rate is highly satisfactory. Only two EAs and 67 households (owing to various reasons) were not covered in this survey. The ultimate response rate in the rural areas was therefore, 863 (99.9 percent) for EAs and 10347 (99.8 percent) for households, whereas, in the urban parts of the country the response rate of EAs and households was 11037 (99.9 percent) and 17618 (99.7 percent) respectively.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field staff
Training was held in two stages. The first stage was training of trainers and took place at CSA head office. A total of 60 participants including professionals and sub-professionals from the Head Office, heads of the branch offices and the respective statisticians from each branch offices were trained at this stage. The second stage training involved training of 533 field staffs consisting of 366 enumerators and 167 supervisors and took place at six selected training centers throughout the country.
The training at the head office lasted for about 9 days focusing on theoretical discussions on concepts, definitions, principles of interview, how to complete the questionnaires and practical sessions which include mock interviews.
The second stage training lasted for about 12 days. The trainers at this stage were statisticians that were trained at the head office. The training was more detailed than the first stage in both theoretical and practical aspects to ensure the full competence of the field staff in collecting the required information. In addition to the theoretical discussions on concepts, definitions and principles of interview and how to complete the questionnaires and etc., similarly done at the head office, field practices were included in the detail training program. Practical interviewing of households during training session helped to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same massage to enumerators and supervisors and also helped to examine the practical difficulties pertaining to the various socioeconomic groups, which would likely be encountered during the actual fieldwork.
Field Organization and Data Collection
The branch offices mainly led by the Household Surveys and Price Statistics Directorate did the major work of the field organization. All the 25 branch offices of the CSA had fully participated in the survey undertaking, starting from recruitment/selection of field staff, organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, field supervision and retrieval of the completed questionnaires to the head office where the data processing activities take place. They were also responsible for administering financial and logistics aspects of the survey. Additionally, line government organizations especially Kebele's had also a significant role in facilitating the fieldwork. Writing administrative letters that introduce the work and the enumerators to the local people particularly the sampled households, provision of field guides, etc. were tasks of the local government units.
Welfare Monitoring Survey data collection has taken place from 27 April to 25 June 2011. A total of 366 enumerators and 167 field supervisors with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1 to 2, 25 heads of branch offices and 25 statisticians were involved in the field work. To undertake the fieldwork, depending on the availability and the situation, four-wheel-drive vehicles and public transportations were used to deploy the working team all over the branch offices.
Centeral Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The survey questionnaire contains 9 forms which are mentioned in detail as follows:
- Form 1: Demographic Characteristics and Economic Activity: In the first section of this form, demographic characteristics of the household members such as relationship to the head of household, sex, age and religion were asked from all members of the household. The second section deals with the current economic activities of the household members aged 10 years and above. Furthermore, this section also deals, whether a person is engaged in productive activity during the last seven days prior to the date of interview. In this part of the questionnaire, if the person is not engaged in any of productive activity, during the last seven days, the main reason for not engaging in productive activity was also asked. Moreover, the employment status, the occupation and industry for the main jobs were also collected from persons that were engaged in the economic activity or from those who were absent from work/temporarily lay off for that week.
Form 2: Education: It consists among others, school attendance, dropout, reason for dropout, and literacy status were asked from all members of the household aged 5 years and above.
Form 3: Health: In the first section of this form, health conditions of all members of the household during the last two months were collected. In the second section of the form, health information of the last 12 months was also collected to all members of the household.
Form 4: Child Care and Breast Feeding: Data on birth history and breast feeding of children under age of five years were collected in this form.
Form 5: Housing Standard and Amenities: In this form, the selected households were asked about their housing and kitchen standard, sanitation, drinking water, fuel and power facilities at the time of the survey, 12 months and 5 years before the survey.
Form 6: Household’s Living Condition Indicators: Consists of four main sections namely; food security indicators, status of crop production, source of income and major shocks affecting the households.
Form 7: Access, Utilization and Satisfaction of Basic Facilities/Services: This form is used to collect data from the households like distance to service facilities and extent of utilization of the facilities, reason for not using the closest service facility and question on access, utilization and satisfaction of basic facilities.
Form 8: Ownership of Land, Dwellings and Other Buildings: This form was administered at household level and consists of four main sections namely: dwelling and land ownership status, utilization of land not owned by the household and about fixed assets owned by the household.
Form 9: Harmful traditional practice: This form is used to collect data for children aged 0-14 years about their harmful traditional practice such as, circumcision, cut of his/ her uvula and for ages less than two years particularly about childhood tooth
The data processing activities were undertaken at the head office. The first stage of data processing activity was training of data editors and coders which were held at the head office by subject matter Directorate staffs. About 70 editors/coders were engaged in the manual editing and coding activities which lasted for about 60 days. Data entry took about 37 days using 125 computers and about 100 data encoders. Machine data cleaning, estimation with proper sampling weights and tabulation activities were carried out procedurally by the professional staff from the concerned Directorate at the head office. The Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) complemented by CSPRO software were used for data entry, consistency checks and tabulation of survey results.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of estimation procedures total, ratio and sampling errors, and standard errors and coefficients of variations for estimates are presented in ANNEX I and ANNEX II of the 2010 Welfare Monitoring Survey Statistical Report.
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A MicroData dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized MicroData files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release MicroData files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized MicroData files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et)
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Agency. Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2011. Ref. ETH_2010_WMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 03 (November 2017)
The following changes were made:
- DDI ID & ID number from ETH_2011_WMS to ETH_2010_WMS since data collection started in 2010