Between Census Household Information Monitoring and Evaluation System 2000
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
This survey is the continuation and improvement recommended by the evaluation committee on Nepal Multiple Indicator Surveillance (NMIS), which completed its sixth cycle in 1997-98.
Although various socio-economic surveys are being conducted in Nepal, at times these surveys do not coincide with the planning and reporting cycles of HMG and UN agencies. Also, different surveys have different objectives, but the data from a comprehensive survey that covers indicators related to women and children is always valuable. A comprehensive Nepal Family Health Survey was conducted in 1996, which provided data for the mid-decade review in retrospect. Current data and indicators relating to issues of women and children are needed for gender specific planning and policy formulation. These data can also be used in planning other national-level programmes which are to begin in the middle of next year. This has led to the planning and execution of the present survey to generate data and indicators related to issues of women and children.
The primary objective of the Between Census Household Information for Monitoring and Evaluation System (BCHIMES) was to provide social indicators on issues related to women and children. This survey has come up with indicators on issues related to women and children for an end-decade assessment of progress of this decade and provide benchmark data for the next programme cycle.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household as well as individual
Version 03: Cleaned, edited and anonymized final dataset.
The scope of the BCHIMES includes:
HOUSEHOLDS: Household Characteristics, Education, Water Supply, Sanitation, Salt Iodisation,
INDIVDUALS: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Family Planning, Ante-Natal and Delivery Care, Information education and communication, Childhealth, STD/HIV/AIDS, Breastfeeding, Care of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Diarrhoea, Vitamin A, Immunisation
National coverage Urban/Rural areas Ecological zones Sub-regions All eco-development regions of the Hills and Terai For mountain eco-development regions:
Eastern, Central & Western Mountains combined in one group
Mid- and Far-western Mountains combined in another group Kathmandu Valley
The survey covered all selected household members, all women aged 15-49 years resident in the household, and all children aged 0-4 years (under age 5) resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
Government of Nepal
United Nations Children's Fund - Nepal
Government of Nepal
United Nations Children's Fund - Nepal
Facilitation and technical support
The NMIS evaluation report suggested that instead of two cycles per year in NMIS one survey be carried out every year with detailed analysis that would have wide-ranging dissemination and plans of data use. In the future, BCHIMES (Between Census Household Information, Monitoring and Evaluation System) will be conducted on a regular basis to generate needed data. The following suggestions were also made in the NMIS evaluation report for the effective design of the sample:
- For every new study, always select a new sample so as to minimise the Hawthorne effect.
- In order to minimise the standard error of the estimate, always try to make the cluster size small, i.e., around 50, as compared to an average cluster size of 120 for the NMIS cycles.
Thus, the new sample design should limit the average cluster size to 50 or smaller and a new sample should be drawn for a new study every time for the minimisation of the Hawthorne effect.
Domains of estimation
A sample design to provide district level estimates was desirable keeping in view the decentralisation programme of the His Majesty's Government of Nepal. However, as the sample size needed for this would be very large and the survey undertaking also huge as well as expensive, it was decided that the size of the survey should provide national as well as some sub-regional estimates. Under the guidance of the Steering Committee as well as the discussion between the CBS personnel and UNICEF led to the conclusion that a minimum of 13 estimates is needed for different geographic areas and these are
1. Five eco-development regions each from the Terai and Hills;
2. Estimates for the Kathmandu Valley; and finally
3. Two estimates for the mountain region, for which the Central, Eastern and Western Mountain regions would be combined as one and the other would be the combination of the Mid-western and Far-western Mountain regions.
Although there are some variations within these mountain regions, regions having comparable characteristics would be combined as one. Since the number of households was the basis of the selection of our sample, we used average size of the household as an indicator to provide the similarity between these combined areas. For example, the average household size was 5.5 in both the Far-western and Mid-western Mountains. Likewise, the average household size for the Eastern, Central and Western Mountains is, respectively, 5.3, 5.0 and 4.8. That is, the average household size was slightly higher in the Far-western and the Mid-western regions and was slightly lower in the others including the Eastern, Central and Western Mountains. In other words, the areas that were combined were quite close in terms of average household size.
In domains with urban areas, the stratification was done according to urban/rural residence. Although the urban/rural estimates for these domains would be of interest, it would have increased the sample size considerably. Thus, at this stage, there were no plans to obtain urban/rural estimates for these 13 domains of estimation. Note, however, that the urban/ rural estimates could be available for the national level, as well as for the Hills and Terai. Because the sample was selected separately for each domain, there was a built-in stratification for the Hills, Terai and Mountains as well as the development regions for most of the domains of study.
Estimation of sample size
Estimates of the sample size, to a large extent, depend on the variable under study. As some variables have a larger variation, sample size estimates depend on the variables. To circumvent this problem, statisticians usually resort to estimating the sample size for variables where the largest sample size is needed and use this as the required minimum sample size. Also, because most of the sample survey use the cluster sample approach, it was necessary to make an allowance of about 2 for the design effect. The magic figure of 2 was based on the design effect calculated for different variables in the Nepal Family Health Survey 1996. It was estimated that a sample size of 800 was adequate for most of the variables, taking into account a design effect factor of 2. This sample size of 800 was regarded as the minimum sample size required for the domain of analysis. Since there are 13 domains, a total of 13x800 = 10400 households were required.
The sample frame for this study was the data from the 1991 Census data on Households for VDCs and their wards. When the census was undertaken in 1991 there were only 31 urban areas in Nepal. However, after 1991 Census, the government declared new municipalities. As a result, there are currently 58 municipalities, of which one is a metropolitan city and three are sub-metropolitan cities. The census data was updated to take into account the change in urban areas.
Allocation of the sample
In domains that have urban areas, the urban sample was be allocated proportionately. Urban and rural samples were selected separately using a PPS (Probability Proportional to Size) method. Examples for this are provided in Table A1, page 161 of the Report on the Situation of Women, Children and Households, Between Census Household Information, Monitoring and Evaluation system (BCHIMES), March-May 2000.
The total number of clusters surveyed was 208 with an average cluster size of 50, providing a sample size of nearly 10,400. Likewise, the number of urban clusters will be 27 and the number of rural clusters will be 181. The proportion of urban clusters was 13 percent (See Table A1, Appendix 1 of the Report on the Situation of Women, Children and Households).
Selection procedure used
For any given domain, the districts were arranged according to the code for districts provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics. If the code of a district is lowest, it appears first in the list. Within the district, VDCs are listed in an alphabetical order. For each VDC, there will be nine wards, for which there is data regarding number of households, total population, males and females.
Initially, the number of households in a domain was cumulated. The total number of households in a domain is divided by the number of clusters selected in the domain. This provided the systematic interval. Then, a random number between 1 and the systematic interval was selected for the first selection. Once the first selection was made, the systematic interval was added to that for the second selection and so on, until the last selection for the domain was made. If a domain consisted of urban and rural areas, then the selection was made separately for the urban and rural areas. Obviously, a proportionate allocation of sample was done for urban as well as rural areas within a domain. Note that a cluster size of 50 was used for the purpose of data collection. In fact, a number of wards will have a population well over 50, and in some cases a ward could have a population substantially less than 50. In some cases, some wards may have to be split and other wards merged to provide a cluster size of around 50.
Distribution of the samples
A total of 208 clusters (10,295 households), with 181 rural clusters (87%) and 27 urban clusters (13%s) were selected from 69 districts for the survey. The average cluster size was 50 households per cluster. Since the sample was stratified by region, it is not self-weighting; hence, sample weights were used for reporting national-level results.
Of the 10,295 households sampled, 10,269 households were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99.7 %. In the interviewed households, 9,983 eligible women (currently married and 15-49 years of age) were identified and 9,424 of them were successfully interviewed, yielding a women's response rate of 94.4 %. Overall, the response rate was 94.1%. Details of the response rate and reasons for non-response for geographical regions are shown in Table 16.1 and Table 16.2 from the Report on the Situation of Women, Children and Households, Between Census Household Information, Monitoring and Evaluation System, BCHIMES, March-May 2000.
The household response rate varied from 98.7% to 100% and women's response rate varied from 87.3% to 100% for regions. A high response rate for households and women was observed in the Hills (96% overall), followed by the Mountains (94.5% overall). Kathmandu Valley had a 100% response rate in households as well as in the women's questionnaire. The Terai had the lowest response rate of 91.9 % overall. Within the Terai region, the Central Terai had the lowest response rate for both households and women's questionnaire (98.7% and 87.3%, respectively). The overall response rate in the Central Terai was 86.2 %. The main reason for women's low response rate in the Terai region was because the fieldwork in the Terai region took place at the time of Holi (Festival of Colour) when most Terai women were celebrating at their maternal homes.
Only 26 households (0.3 %) could not be interviewed. Hence, the reason for nonresponse in the household questionnaire is not mentioned here. Table 16.2 presents the non-response rate by reasons of non-response for the women's questionnaire by regions.
Overall, 559 women could not be interviewed at the time of the survey, yielding a nonresponse rate for women of 5.6%. The main reason for non-response for the women's questionnaire was the unavailability of women in the household (3.76%).
The children's questionnaire collected information on children under 5 years of age of currently married women aged 15-49 years by interviewing the women. This questionnaire omitted to include a question regarding the total number of children under 5 years of age, to verify whether there were more eligible children under 5 than was identified in the household questionnaire. As a result, the denominator to compute the percentage that completed the children's questionnaire was taken from the data in the household questionnaire. Hence, the percentage that completed the children's questionnaire may be slightly lower than the figures in Table 16.3 of the same report.
The overall percentage completed (at minimum) in ARI/diarrhoea, vitamin A and immunisation modules were 92.3%, 89.4 % and 91.1%, respectively (Table 16.3). As in the case of the household questionnaire and women's questionnaire, the children's questionnaire also had a low percentage completed in the Central Terai region. The percentage completed (at minimum) for ARI/diarrhoea, vitamin A, and immunisation modules in the Central Terai region were 85.7%, 82.5% and 85.7 %, respectively.
Of the 10,269 households interviewed, 14,947 children aged 6-15 years were identified and information on 14,588 children could be gathered, yielding a response rate of 97.6% for the education module (Table 16.4, page 152 of same report). The response rates ranged from 94% to 100% for sub-regions. The response rate was highest in the Hills (99%) as compared to 96.5% for both the Terai and the Mountains.
Because of the equal allocation of sample size for all the domains, the proportionality of the sample allocation was not met and, thus, sample weights needed to be calculated for the national as well as the Hill, Terai and Mountain region estimates. Final weights/ raising factors depended on the number of households interviewed in each domain. For the calculation of sample weights, the module developed by UNICEF was used. For detail, please have a look at Appendix I Table A1 of the Report on the Situaltion of Women, Children and Households, Between Census Household Information, Monitoring and Evaluation System (BCHIMES), March - May 2000.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Supervision was done by the BSO Supervisors, BSO chief, Officials from CBS. The main role of supervisors are to take care of data callection and give necessary instruction to the enumerators if needed.
The data was collected by 14 teams, each made up of three female interviewers, one field editor, and one supervisor.
Data Collection Notes
Recruitment, training and fieldwork
Fourteen (14) teams were mobilised for data collection. Each team consisted of a team leader/supervisor, field data editor, and three female interviewers. A total of 71 field workers were mobilised for data collection. Team leaders/supervisors and field data editors were the permanent staff of CBS who were deputed for the survey. These field supervisors and editors were stationed at the central office or at different branch-level offices of the CBS. Likewise, seven female interviewers were also deputed from the central office of CBS. These deputed female interviewers collected data in Kathmandu Valley.
Thirty-six (36) female interviewers were recruited at three different districts, namely, Surkhet, Sunsari and Kathmandu. These 36 interviewers were distributed among 12 teams and sent to districts for data collection. The job of data collection was allocated to each interviewer so that each team visited districts in the Terai, Hills and Mountains.
The first training of interviewers was carried out in the second week of Falgun 2057, i.e., from 19 to 24 Feb 2000, and the field test was held on 25-26 Feb, 2000. This training was held in Kathmandu for the Kathmandu Valley teams as well as for trainers. A total of 11 field workers and seven trainers participated. A field test of the questionnaire was also carried out but because most of the questions were used in previous surveys, only minor changes were needed and especially with order-and-skip questions. This training also provided the opportunity for trainers to interact with interviewers and prepared them for conducting the training at Surkhet and Inaruwa.
The training in Inaruwa and Surkhet was held from 28 Feb to 5 March. Altogether 30 participants divided into six teams participated at each training site. One day was used for field practice and one half-day was allocated for the discussion of field problems.
The fieldwork started on 7 March 2000 and ended on 30 May 2000. That is, all data collection was completed in 82 days.
Branch Statistics Offices
Central Bureau of Statistics
Questionnaires were administered to households, currently married women aged 15-49 years, children aged 6-15 years, and children under 5 years of age in each selected household. The questionnaires were based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) model questionnaire. The English version of the questionnaires was translated into Nepali. The questionnaires were pre-tested in February 2000. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made in the wording and translation.
The Household Questionnaire includes the following modules:
- Household Information Panel
- Household Schedule
- Education Module
- Drinking Water
- Sanitation and Latrine
The Individual Questionnaire includes the following modules:
- Individual Questionnaire Control
- Demographic and Social Characteristics
- Family Planning
- Ante-Natal and Delivery Care
- Care of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI)
- Vitamin A
The data was collected by 14 teams, each made up of three female interviewers, one field editor and one supervisor. The data entry programme was generated using EPI Info version 6.04. The data was entered twice and was validated using the validation programme in EPI Info in order to avoid data entry errors. During the process of validation, a substantial amount of data needed to be verified from the actual questionnaire. Once the validation check was completed, the data was checked for internal consistency using a check programme not used during the data entry stage. This process also required substantial time and problems had to be rectified by going through the questionnaire several times with different checks. Thus processed, the data was converted into SPSS system files and were tabulated using the SPSS versions 10.0 and 7.5.
A relational database programme was written in Epi Info package (a word processing database and statistics programme for public health) for data entry and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) was used for data processing. For generating analytical tables in particular, a General Tables Command within the Custom Tables of SPSS was used. In order to maximize the quality of data entry, all records were entered twice by different data-entry operators and the Epi Info Validate Programme was used to validate every record. Beside these, other consistency and structural checks were carried out to ensure the quality of data.
Estimates of Sampling Error
This sampling design is same as that used in the Family Health Survey 1996 and thus the variance estimation formula used in NFHS1996 is also valid for this design.
The NFHS 1996 report uses the Jackknife method of estimation of standard errors for complex rates and proportions such as mortality rates. The application of this technique to NMIS data has provided for errors quite close to other estimation formulae. The initial formatting of the Jackknife method is time-consuming in EXCEL, but once set up for one variable, it can be used for other variables by substituting the new data. In fact, this method of variance estimation was used in this survey.
Note: For the formula and details of the computations, please check Tables A.2, A.3 and A.4 of the Report on the Situation of Women, Children and Households, Between Census Information, Monitoring and Evaluation System (BCHIMES), March - May 2000.
National Data Archive, Publication, Distribution and Library Section
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by Article 8 of Statistics Act 1958.
Restriction on publication of information and details
Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which has been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to section 3, section 4, section 5, section 6 ot section 7, or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any officer of the Bureau without the written person or of his authorised representative supplying such information or details.
For the purpose of instituting any suit under this Act, nothing mentioned in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to prevent production of such information before any court of law.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS).
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal. Between Census Household Information Monitoring and Evaluation System 2000. Ref. NPL_2000_BCHIMES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on [date].
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset.
DDI Document ID
Social Statistics Section
Central Bureau of Statistics
Documentation of the study
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Editing for IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Central Bureau of Statistics - Original documentation of the study.
Version 2.0 - Edtied version by ADP based on Version 1.0 of CBS downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on 18 February 2013.