The National Sample Census of Agriculture (NCA) 2001/02 is the fifth decennial census of agriculture of Nepal conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics. The first had been undertaken in 1961/62. The second, third and fourth had been undertaken in 1971/72, 1981/82 and 1991/92 respectively. Like the previous censuses, the 2001/02 NCA covered all districts of the country.
The 2001/02 National Sample Census of Agriculture of Nepal (2001/02 NCA) conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics is the most recent census of agriculture in His Majestic Government, Nepal. The first census in this country was conducted in 1961/62. Since then the Census of Agriculture has been conducted decennially: 1971/72, 1981/82 and 1991/92.
The 2001/02 NCA was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved the complete enumeration of all agricultural holdings in the country including the area of the holding and livestock number. The enumeration of all the holdings was an integral activity of the first phase of the Census of Population 2001, which undertook the listing operation from May 14-28, 2001. Some questions on agricultural activities were asked to identify the agricultural holding. The second phase of the 2001/02 NCA was the selection and enumeration of sample holdings to widen the scope of the census from January to June 2002. Data on agricultural crops gathered refer to calendar year 2001 while the livestock and poultry population refers at the time of enumeration, from January to June 2002.
The main objective of the census of agriculture of Nepal is to publish data at district level on the following:
1. Structure and characteristics of the holding such as size, agricultural land use, land tenure, land fragmentation, area planted to crops, number of livestock, and others;
2. To provide benchmark data for improving the reliability of estimates from current agricultural survey; and,
3. To provide basic data for national, ecological belts and development regions levels for national as well as sub-national policy, planning and decision making purposes.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
Individual, Agricultural household
Version 01: Edited data, second version, for internal use only.
Scope and Coverage of the 2001/02 NCA
The scope of the 2001/02 NCA is almost the same as that in 1991/92 National Sample Census of Agriculture which adopted most of the recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the collection of data under the following main headings:
1. Identification. Holding and holder identification.
2. Holder characteristics. Age and sex of holder; legal status of the holding; use of produce from holding; whether received agricultural loan and the source.
3. Demographic and other characteristics. Age and sex of household members. Characteristics of the farm population were gathered in the Census of Population 2001 but will be included in the NCA 2001/02 analysis of results.
4. Employment. For agricultural labour: permanent workers by sex and employment of occasional workers. Economic activities of the members of the household of the holder were not taken in the agriculture census because these were already covered in the Census of Population 2001 but will be included in the analysis of results of the 2001/02 NCA.
5. Land and water. For holding as a whole: number of parcels; area; type of land; irrigated land, source of irrigation; etc. For each parcel: area; type of land; type of soil, color of soil; irrigated; area rented from others; whether rented out land; land use (whether arable, land under temporary crops, temporary meadow, temporary fallow; land under permanent crops; permanent meadows and pasture; pond; woodland/forest; and land not elsewhere classified) land tenure; and part of holding made uncultivable due to flooding and/or soil erosion during the reference year.
6. Crops. Temporary crops: name of crops grown and area harvested on each parcel. Permanent crops: name of crops grown for each parcel; number of trees of productive and non-productive ages in compact plantations; and number of scattered trees. Use of agricultural inputs for major crops: type of seed; fertilizers, organic and inorganic: area and quantity of inorganic (chemical) fertilizer used; pesticides; use of irrigation and high yielding varieties of seeds; cropping patterns for each parcel, whether pure stand, mixed crop, or associated crop.
7. Livestock. Animal numbers by type according to age and sex; poultry numbers: chicken classified by sex and for female, whether laying eggs or not.
8. Machinery and equipment. Use of items of agricultural machinery and equipment; number of items; and source (owned by holder, common, landlord, or others).
9. Buildings and other structures. Whether non-residential buildings used for agricultural purposes; tenure and type of these buildings.
10. Ancillary activities on the holding. Existence of forest trees and fisheries on the holding; number of forest trees; type and area of fishing installation.
National coverage, Ecological belt, Development Region, District, Urban and Rural areas
All agricultural households having a minimum specified agricultural land area operated by holding (for hill and mountain region 4 anna and 8 dhure in terai) or having a specified minimum number of livestock or poultry.
Agricultural activities undertaken by government organizations, businesses like corporations and other juridical persons were not covered by the NCA.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secreteriat
Asian Development Bank
Technical assistance in data processing and analysis
Asian Development Bank
Financial support for training
A. Complete Enumeration of Holdings, Area and Livestock
The census methodology in undertaking the 2001/02 National Census of Agriculture of Nepal is a combination of complete enumeration and sampling.
As mentioned earlier, the Census of Agriculture was implemented in two phases. The first phase was the complete enumeration of all holdings, their area and the number of livestock and poultry raised by all households in the country as an integral activity in the listing operations of the Census of Population 2001. Two questions were asked concerning agricultural activities of households, namely: total area of the agriculture holding and total number of livestock/poultry kept by the households. All households listed in the Population Census 2001 that possessed the characteristics of the holding as defined in the agriculture census were identified as agricultural holdings. These holdings and their corresponding areas and number of livestock kept including their household population were compiled by ward for all the 75 districts of Nepal from which the sampling frame was constructed.
B. Sampling Design
A two-stage stratified sampling was employed in the selection of the samples for enumeration to obtain the characteristics of the holdings for the 2001/02 NCA. This design is similar to that of the 1991/92 sampling design, which is a self-weighting sample.
Construction of the sampling frame
The listing of the wards in each district with the summarized data of the number of holdings and area was used to form enumeration areas (EA's). However, wards containing less than 30 holdings were combined to form one EA. The EAs in each district were stratified according to the number of holdings enumerated, arranged from the highest to the lowest.
There are some VDCs (Village Development Committees) that were not covered by the listing operations or census enumeration during the Census of Population 2001 involving 12 districts. However, some estimates of the number of households and population were prepared by the Population Division based on the census listing or some independent sources of information, in the absence of the listing of households. The 12 districts are: Jhapa and Siraha districts both in Eastern Tarai; Surkhet and Salyan districts in Midwestern Hill; Sindhupalchok and Dolakha districts in Central Mountain; Sinduli district in Central Hill; Dolpa, Jumla, Kalitkot, and Mugu districts all in Midwestern Mountain; and Bajura district in Far-Western Mountain.
Selection of samples
The first stage of sample selection involved the primary sampling units (PSUs), where sample enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). The measure of size is the number of holdings enumerated in the EAs during the Census of Population 2001 listing operations.
To measure the importance of each district, the total area under 8 major crops was determined (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley, sugarcane, oilseed and potato). Districts were stratified into four groups according to this criterion. Group I represented the 10 least important districts; Group II, the next 15 important districts and Group III, the next 25 important districts and Group IV, the 25 most important districts. The number of selected EAs per district in each group follows:
Group I - 50 EAs per district (total of 450 EAs because one district, specifically Manang district was taken as a certainty sample district)
Group II - 60 EAs per district (total of 900 EAs)
Group III - 70 EAs per district (total of 1,750 EAs)
Group IV- 80 EAs per district (total of 2000 EAs).
The second stage of sample selection involved the selection of sample holdings systematically in each sample EA. Before the sample selection was done, a listing of holdings in each sample PSU was conducted to update the listing during the Population Census. The target number of holdings for enumeration in each sample EA was 25.
The Census of Agriculture sample was designed to be self-weighting within each district, i.e. all holdings within a district have the same chance of being included in the sample.
Approximately 5,100 enumeration areas were selected in the 74 districts and about 125,000 agricultural holdings were selected for enumeration. One district was completely covered in the second phase of the census of agriculture because of the few number of enumeration areas and holdings. This is the district of Manang.
The detailed stratification scheme done on the districts, the sampling procedures and the estimation of parameters for each district are found in the technical report, which is one of the series of reports prepared for the 2001/02 NCA.
The Census of Agriculture sample was designed to be self-weighting within each district, i.e. all holdings within a district have the same chance of being included in the sample. The weight variable, SAMPLEWEIGHT, is available for each of the data files.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Field supervisors supervise the day to day work of the enumerator s. One supervisior controls 4 enumerators. The supervisors also selected the Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU) from selected EAs after listing all the agricultural households of a selected ward. District officers and Supervisors supervise the field work intensively. In addition to this, central supervision were also frequently done.
Data Collection Notes
A pilot survey was conducted one year ago i.e. in 2000.
Training for district officers and supervisors was held in the centre and training for the field supervisors and enumerators was held in districts at the beginning of the field work.
On the average, one hour is taken for filling the questionnaire i.e. schedule. Nepali national language was used for conducting the interviews.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission
The questionnaires for the National Sample Census of Agriculture were structured questionnaires based on FAO recomendation with some modifications and additions. The main questionnaire was Schedule-2 which contains the following topics:
Part 1:Information on Holder and respondent
Part 2: General Information
Part 3: Description of Pupulation
Part 4: Description for Land and Water
Part 5: Crops
Part 6: Livestock and Poultry
Part 7: Agriculture Machinery by Source and Use
Part 8: Non-Residential Building
Part 9 : Forest and Feshery
Part 10 : Agricultural Loan
Part 11: Miscellaneous
The data were subjected to the following editing processes:
1. Manual editing and coding were done at the head office after collecting the filled questionnaires.
2. Completeness check after data entry done by a completeness checking computer program.
3. Machine editting by machine editing program.
The 2001/02 NCA data were compared with data from the previous agriculture census series as well as population assess data quality. Data comparisons are given in the Highlights and Agricultural Monograph.
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by Article 8 of Statistics Act 1958.
Restriction on publication of information and details
Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which have been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to Section 3 or Section 4 or Section 5 or Section 6 or Section 7 or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any other officer of the Bureau without the written permission of the person or of his or her authorized representative supplying such information or details.
For the purpose of institution of any suit under this Act, nothing mentioned in Sub-section (1) shall be deemed to bar the production of such information before any court.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS).
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal. National Sample Census of Agriculture 2001-02. Ref. NPL_2001_AgC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on [date].
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset.
DDI Document ID
Central Bureau of Statisics
Tulasi Ram Pokhrel
Branch Statistics Office, Pyuthan
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Editing for IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Central Bureau of Statistics - Original documentation of the study.
Version 2.0 - Edited version by ADP based on Version 1.0 of CBS downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on 12 April 2013.