The National Census of Agriculture (NCA), 2011/12 is the sixth decennial census of agriculture of Nepal conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics. The first had been undertaken in 1961/62. The second, third, fourth and fifth had been undertaken in 1971/72, 1981/82 ,1991/92 and 2001/02 respectively. Like the previous censuses, the 2011/12 NCA covered all districts of the country. This sixth census of agriculture, we called it "National Census of Agriculture" whereas the previous census we called them "National Sample Census of Agriculture".
The main objective of the census of agriculture of Nepal is to publish data at district level on the following:
1. Structure and characteristics of the holding such as size, agricultural land use, land tenure, land fragmentation, area planted to crops, number of livestock, and others;
2. To provide benchmark data for improving the reliability of estimates from current agricultural survey; and
3. To provide basic data for national, ecological belts and development regions levels for national as well as sub-national policy, planning and decision making purposes.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural household, individual
Version 01: Microdata is not yet available.
The scope of the 2011/12 NCA is almost the same as that in 2001/02 National Sample Census of Agriculture which adopted most of the recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the collection of data under the following main headings:
1. Identification. Holding and holder identification.
2 Holder characteristics. Age and sex of holder; legal status of the holding; use of produce from holding; whether received agricultural loan and the source.
3. Demographic and other characteristics. Age and sex of household members. Characteristics of the farm population were gathered in the Census of Population 2011 but will be included in the NCA 2011/12 analysis of results.
4. Employment. For agricultural labour: permanent workers by sex and employment of occasional workers. Economic activities of the members of the household of the holder were not taken in the agriculture census because these were already covered in the Census of Population 2011 but will be included in the analysis of results of the 2011/12 NCA.
5. Land and water. For holding as a whole: number of parcels; area; type of land; irrigated land, source of irrigation; etc. For each parcel: area; type of land; type of soil, color of soil; irrigated; area rented from others; whether rented out land; land use (whether arable, land under temporary crops, temporary meadow, temporary fallow; land under permanent crops; permanent meadows and pasture; pond; woodland/forest; and land not elsewhere classified) land tenure; and part of holding made uncultivable due to flooding and/or soil erosion during the reference year.
6. Crops. Temporary crops: name of crops grown and area harvested on each parcel. Permanent crops: name of crops grown for each parcel; number of trees of productive and non-productive ages in compact plantations; and number of scattered trees. Use of agricultural inputs for major crops: type of seed; fertilizers, organic and inorganic: area and quantity of inorganic (chemical) fertilizer used; pesticides; use of irrigation and high yielding varieties of seeds; cropping patterns for each parcel, whether pure stand, mixed crop, or associated crop.
7. Livestock. - Animal numbers by type according to age and sex; poultry numbers: chicken classified by sex and for female, whether laying eggs or not.
8. Machinery and equipment. Use of items of agricultural machinery and equipment; number of items; and source (owned by holder, common, landlord, or others).
9. Buildings and other structures. Whether non-residential buildings used for agricultural purposes; tenure and type of these buildings.
10. Ancillary activities on the holding. Existence of forest trees and fisheries on the holding; number of forest trees; type and area of fishing installation.
11. Miscellaneous. There are few questions about sufficiency of food and mode of transport and time and the others.
National coverage - the agricultural census covered the whole of Nepal including urban areas. However, only agricultural holdings operated by households were included. urban and rural areas Ecological belt Development Region District
All agriculture households having a minimum specified agricultural land area operated by holding (for hill and mountain region 4 anna and 8 dhure in terai) or having a specified minimum number of livestocks or poultry.
Agricultural activities undertaken by government organizations, businesses like corporations and other juridical persons were not covered by the NCA.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
Goverment of Nepal
Government of Nepal
Food and Agriculture Organization
Provision of national and international consultants for the sample design
A. Complete Enumeration of Holdings, Area and Livestock
The census methodology in undertaking the 2001/02 National Census of Agriculture of Nepal is a combination of complete enumeration and sampling.
The Census of Agriculture was implemented in two phases. The first phase was the complete enumeration of all holdings, their area and the number of livestock and poultry raised by all households in the country as an integral activity in the listing operations of the Census of Population 2001. Two questions were asked concerning agricultural activities of households, namely: total area of the agriculture holding and total number of livestock/poultry kept by the households. All households listed in the Population Census 2011 that possessed the characteristics of the holding as defined in the agriculture census were identified as agricultural holdings. These holdings and their corresponding areas and number of livestock kept including their household population were compiled by ward for all the 75 districts of Nepal from which the sampling frame was constructed.
B. Sampling Design
A two-stage stratified sampling was employed in the selection of the samples for enumeration to obtain the characteristics of the holdings for the 2011/12, NCA. This design is almost similar to that of the 2001/02 sampling design, which is a self-weighting sample.
Construction of the sampling frame
The listing of the wards in each district with the summarized data of the number of holdings and area was used to form enumeration areas (EA's). However, wards containing less than 30 holdings were combined to form one EA. The EAs in each district were stratified according to the number of holdings enumerated, arranged from the highest to the lowest.
Selection of samples
The first stage : selection of the primary sampling units (PSUs), where sample enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS), with power allocation 0.4. The measure of size is the number of holdings enumerated in the EAs during the Census of Population 2011 listing operations and to measure the importance of each district, the total area under 8 major crops (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley, sugarcane, oilseed and potato) was determined.
The second stage : selection of sample holdings systematically in each sample EA. Before the sample selection was done, a listing of holdings in each sample PSU was conducted to update the listing during the Population Census. The target number of holdings for enumeration in each sample EA was 25.
Approximately 5,200 enumeration areas were selected in the 74 districts and about 130,000 agricultural holdings were selected for enumeration. One district was completely covered in the second phase of the census of agriculture because of the few number of enumeration areas and holdings. This is the district of Manang.
The Census of Agriculture sample was designed to be self-weighting within each district, i.e. all holdings within a district have the same chance of being included in the sample. Sample weights are available for each of the data files and is called SAMPLEWGT.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There are two types of supervisor. First one is central supervisor and the other is field Supervisors. Central supervisors are from central Bureau of statistics and Branch Statistics Office (BSO) whereas the field supervisors are from BSO and district government offices as well as in contract.
Field Supervisors supervise day to day work of enumerators. One supervisor controls 4 enumerators. Supervisors supervised daily works of the enumerators and selected Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU) from selected EAs after listing all Agricultural households of a selected ward. District Officers and Supervisors supervise the field work intensively. In addition to this central supervision were also frequently done.
Data Collection Notes
The pilot survey was conducted one year ago i.e. in 2010.
For the Agricultural Census, training for district officer and central supervisor were held in centre and training for the field supervisors and enumerators are held in districts at the beginning of the field work.
On an average one hour is taken for filling the questionnaire i.e. schedule. Nepali National language was used for conducting interview.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission
The questionnaires for the National Sample Census of Agriculture were structured questionnaires based on FAO recommendation with some modifications and additions. The main questionnaire was Schedule-2 which contains the following topics:
Part 1: Information on Holder and respondent
Part 2: General Information
Part 3: Description of Population
Part 4: Description for Land and Water
Part 5: Crops
Part 6: Livestock and Poultry
Part 7: Agriculture Machinery by Source and Use
Part 8: Non-Residential Building
Part 9: Forest and Fishery
Part 10: Agricultural Loan
Part 11: Miscellaneous
Community Questionnaire (Schedule 3)
The Community Questionnaire: This community questionnaire is adapted first time in Nepal. The aim of the questionnaire is to collect information of the community i.e. selected enumeration area. It contains four sections given below:
0. Information on Enumeration
1. Land used and Other Information of the ward
2. Social and Economic Situation of the ward
3. Community Structure and Facility of the ward
4. Ongoing Development Program in the ward
The total area of the holding was reported in the district where the holder resides, regardless of the physical location of the parcels comprising the holding. Although in Nepal a holding is usually equivalent to the household and it is very rare where a household operates a holding where some parcels are located in other districts.
The data will be subjected to the following editing process:
1. Manual editing and coding were done at the head office after collecting the filled questionnaires.
2. Completeness check after data entry done by a completeness checking computer program.
3. Machine editting by machine editing program.
The data entry process will include the following steps:
1) Data entry
2) Structure and completeness checking
3) Verification entry
4) Comparison of verification data
The previous series of Agriculture Census data as well as population data will be used for evaluating the quality of the data.
Director: Publication, Distribution and Library Section
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by Article 8 of Statistics Act 1958.
Restriction on publication of information and details
Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which have been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to Section 3 or Section 4 or Section 5 or Section 6 or Section 7 or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any other officer of the Bureau without the written permission of the person or of his or her authorized representative supplying such information or details.
For the purpose of institution of any suit under this Act, nothing mentioned in Sub-section (1) shall be deemed to bar the production of such information before any court.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal. National Sample Census of Agriculture 2011/12. Ref. NPL_2011_AgC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on [date].
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset.
DDI Document ID
Central Bureau of Statisics
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Editing for IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Central Bureau of Statistics - Original documentation of the study.
Version 2.0 - Edited version by ADP based on Version 1.0 of CBS downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on 26 April 2013.