National Sample Survey 2011-2012 (68th round) - Schedule 10 - Employment and Unemployment
Labor Force Survey [hh/lfs]
The National Sample Survey (NSS), set up by the Government of India in 1950 to collect socio-economic data employing scientific sampling methods, started its sixty-eighth round from 1st July 2011 and was continued up to 30th June 2012.
The 68th round (July 2011-June 2012) of NSS is earmarked for surveys on 'Household Consumer Expenditure' and 'Employment and Unemployment'. The last survey on these subjects was conducted in 66th round of NSS (2009-10) which was the eighth quinquennial survey in the series on 'household consumer expenditure' and 'employment and unemployment'. Current survey is similar to a quinquennial survey as far as subjects of enquiry, design, questionnaires and sample sizes are concerned.
Objective of the survey on employment and unemployment:
The basic objective of the employment-unemployment surveys of NSSO is to get estimates of the employment and unemployment characteristics at national and State level. The statistical indicators on labour market are required for planning, policy and decision making at various levels, both within government and outside. Some of the important uses of these indicators include use by the Planning Commission in evolving employment strategy, use by National Accounts Division in estimating gross domestic product using sector wise workforce participation, and use by various researchers to analyse the condition of the labour market. In this context, it may be mentioned that data collected in NSS employment-unemployment surveys was widely used by the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS), 2009. In NSS 68th round, information on various facets of employment and unemployment will be collected in Schedule 10 (Employment and Unemployment) from all the members of the selected households.
The critical issues in the context of labour force enquiries pertain to defining the labour force and measuring participation of labour force in different economic activities. The activity participation of the people is not only dynamic but also multidimensional; it varies with region, age, education, gender, industry and occupational category. These aspects of the labour force will be captured in detail in the present survey on employment and unemployment. Major types of information that will be collected in this round relate to activity status, industry, occupation and earning from employment for the employees along with education particulars, etc. Besides, the survey will also provide insight into the informal sector and informal employment. Information will be collected from the workers about the type of enterprises in which they were engaged and conditions of employment for the employees. Using the data collected from employment and unemployment surveys, indicators will be generated on labour force participation rate, worker population ratio, unemployment rates, employment in the informal sector, informal employment, wages of employees, etc.
The survey on employment and unemployment is the prime source of estimates of various parameters of labour force and activity participation of the population. The first quinquennial survey on employment - unemployment, carried out by the NSSO in the 27th round (September 1972 - October 1973), made a marked departure from the earlier employment surveys of NSSO in procedure and content. The concepts and procedures followed in this survey were primarily based on the recommendations of the 'Expert Committee on Unemployment Estimates' (1970). Since then, the seven successive quinquennial surveys conducted in the 32nd, 38th, 43rd, 50th, 55th, 61st and 66th rounds have, more or less, followed an identical approach in the measurement of employment and unemployment. The basic approach (in all these seven quinquennial surveys) had been the collection of data to generate the estimates of employment and unemployment according to the 'usual status' based on a reference period of one year, the 'current weekly status' based on a reference period of one week, and the 'current daily status' based on each day of the seven days preceding the date of survey. In order to reveal the multi-dimensional aspects of the employment-unemployment situation in India, information on several correlates were also gathered in these surveys. Sets of probing questions on some of these aspects had also been one of the basic features of these surveys. In NSS 68th round (July 2011- June 2012), detailed information on employment-unemployment was collected in the same way as was done in the last quinquennial survey, i.e., in NSS 66th round.
A Working Group was set up for the purpose of finalising the survey methodology and schedules of enquiry of the 68th round. Considering all the aspects of current data demand and usefulness of the survey results, the Group has suggested a few improvisations, additions and deletions in the content of the schedule of enquiry for the present survey. The major changes made in the schedule for employment and unemployment survey vis-à-vis the previous quinquennial survey (NSS 66th round) are given below:
a) Block 3:
1) In NSS 66th round survey, along with the information on 'whether the household has NREG job card', information was collected on 'whether got work in NREG works during the last 365 days', 'number of days worked' and 'mode of payment'. In NSS 68th round for rural households, information on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) works was collected on the following:
i. whether the household has MGNREG job card
ii. number of MGNREG job cards issued to the household
iii. whether any member of the household has any bank/post office account
Information on the last two items (viz., ii & iii) will be collected from the households which have got MGNREG job card.
2) Household type codes and procedure for determination of household type codes in rural areas have been modified.
b) Block 3.1: In this block information on indebtedness of rural labour households was collected in NSS 66th round. This Block was not canvassed in NSS 68th round.
c) Block 4:
i. Instead of collecting information on 'whether currently registered with employment exchange' for persons of age 15-45 years as was done in NSS 66th round, information was collected for the same age group on 'whether currently registered with any placement agency'.
ii. In NSS 66th round, for vocational training, detailed information was collected on 'duration of training', 'source from which degree/diploma/certificate received' and 'whether the vocational training was ever helpful in getting a job'. In NSS 68th round, collection of information on vocational training was restricted only to 'whether receiving/received any vocational training' and 'field of training'.
iii. For persons of age 18 years and above in rural households with MGNREG job card, information was collected on 'whether registered in any MGNREG job card' and, for those who were registered in any MGNREG job card 'whether worked in MGNREG work during last 365 days'. Such information was not collected in NSS 66th round.
d) Block 5.1/5.2:
i. Information on 'seeking or available or suitable for the type of occupation' which was collected in NSS 66th round in Block 5.1 from the non-workers of age below 75 years, was not collected.
ii. The probing questions to the self-employed persons in the usual status (Block 5.1/5.2) to identify Home Based Workers have been deleted.
e) Block 5.3:
i. In this block, for those who were unemployed on all the 7 days of the week, information was also collected on 'duration of present spell of unemployment'. In NSS 66th round, this question was placed in Block 6. Except retaining this item in Block 5.3, Block 6 of NSS 66th round on follow-up questions for persons unemployed on all the 7 days of the week has been deleted.
f) Block 6 (Block 7.1/7.2 of NSS 66th round):
i. Block 7.1 and Block 7.2 have been restructured by deleting some of the items and a new block (Block 6) has been formed in NSS 68th round.
ii. Questions on remunerativeness of the earning from self-employment which were asked in NSS 66th round in Block 7.1 to the self-employed persons in principal status and/or subsidiary status have been deleted. These were, 'do you regard the current earning from self-employment as remunerative?' and 'what amount per month would you regard as remunerative?'.
iii. Information was collected in NSS 66th round in Block 7.2 on some aspects of labour mobility, such as, whether changed establishment, status, industry, occupation during the period of last two years. Information on these items was not collected in NSS 68th round.
iv. The three items of Block 7.2 of NSS 66th round which have been retained in NSS 68th round are placed in Block 6. These are:
1. Is there any union/association in your activity?
2. Whether a member of union/association
3. Nature of employment
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
- v01: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
In the present round, Schedule 10 on employment-unemployment consists of 13 blocks.
Block 0: Descriptive identification of sample household
Block 1: Identification of sample household
Block 2: Particulars of field operation
Block 3: Household characteristics
Block 4: Demographic particulars of household members
Block 5.1: Usual principal activity particulars of household members
Block 5.2: Usual subsidiary economic activity particulars of household members
Block 5.3: Time disposition of members during the week
Block 6: Follow-up questions on availability for work, existence of union/association and nature of employment for persons working in the usual principal or subsidiary status (i.e. those with codes 11-51 in col. 3 of bl. 5.1 or bl. 5.2)
Block 7: Follow-up questions for persons with usual principal activity status code 92 or 93 in column (3) of block 5.1
Block 8: Household consumer expenditure
Block 9: Remarks by investigator/ assistant superintending officer
Block 10: Comments by supervisory officer(s)
The survey will cover the whole of the Indian Union except (i) interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (ii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year.
Producers and sponsors
National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)
Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MOSPI)
Outline of sample design:
A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for the 68th round survey. The first stage units (FSU) are the 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards in case of Kerala) in the rural sector and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban sector. The ultimate stage units (USU) are households in both the sectors. In case of large FSUs, one intermediate stage of sampling is the selection of two hamlet-groups (hgs)/ sub-blocks (sbs) from each rural/ urban FSU.
Sampling Frame for First Stage Units:
For the rural sector, the list of 2001 census villages (henceforth the term 'village' would include also Panchayat wards for Kerala) constitutes the sampling frame. For the urban sector, the list of UFS blocks (2007-12) is considered as the sampling frame.
Within each district of a State/ UT, generally speaking, two basic strata have been formed: i) rural stratum comprising of all rural areas of the district and (ii) urban stratum comprising of all the urban areas of the district. However, within the urban areas of a district, if there are one or more towns with population 10 lakhs or more as per population census 2001 in a district, each of them forms a separate basic stratum and the remaining urban areas of the district are considered as another basic stratum.
Rural sector r: If 'r' be the sample size allocated for a rural stratum, the number of sub-strata formed would be 'r/4'. The villages within a district as per frame were first arranged in ascending order of population. Then sub-strata 1 to 'r/4' have been demarcated in such a way that each sub-stratum comprised a group of villages of the arranged frame and have more or less equal population.
Urban sector: If 'u' be the sample size for an urban stratum, 'u/4' number of sub-strata have been formed. In case u/4 is more than 1, implying formation of 2 or more sub-strata, this is done by first arranging the towns in ascending order of total number of households in the town as per UFS phase 2007-12 and then arranging the IV units of each town and blocks within each IV unit in ascending order of their numbers. From this arranged frame of UFS blocks of all the towns/million plus city of a stratum, 'u/4' number of sub- strata formed in such a way that each sub-stratum has more or less equal number of households as per UFS 2007-12.
Total sample size (FSUs):
12784 FSUs have been allocated for the central sample at all-India level and 14772 FSUs have been allocated for state sample.
Allocation of total sample to States and UTs:
The total number of sample FSUs has allocated to the States and UTs in proportion to population as per census 2001 subject to a minimum sample allocation to each State/ UT. While doing so, the resource availability in terms of number of field investigators has been kept in view.
Allocation of State/ UT level sample to rural and urban sectors:
State/ UT level sample size has been allocated between two sectors in proportion to population as per census 2001 with double weightage to urban sector. However, if such weighted allocation resulted in too high sample size for the urban sector, the allocation for bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, etc. was restricted to that of the rural sector. A minimum of 16 FSUs (minimum 8 each for rural and urban sector separately) is allocated to each state/ UT.
Allocation to strata/ sub-strata:
Within each sector of a State/ UT, the respective sample size has been allocated to the different strata/ sub-strata in proportion to the population as per census 2001. Allocations at stratum level are adjusted to multiples of 4 with a minimum sample size of 4. Allocation for each sub-stratum is 4. Equal number of samples has been allocated among the four sub-rounds.
Selection of FSUs:
For the rural sector, from each stratum/ sub-stratum, required number of sample villages has been selected by probability proportional to size with replacement (PPSWR), size being the population of the village as per Census 2001.
For the urban sector, UFS 2007-12 phase has been used for all towns and cities and FSUs have been selected from each stratum/sub-stratum by using Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement (SRSWOR).
Both rural and urban samples are to be drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples and equal number of samples have been allocated among the four sub rounds.
Selection of hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks - important steps
Criterion for hamlet-group/ sub-block formation:
After identification of the boundaries of the FSU, it is first determined whether listing is to be done in the whole sample FSU or not. In case the population of the selected FSU is found to be 1200 or more, it has to be divided into a suitable number (say, D) of 'hamlet-groups' in the rural sector and 'sub-blocks' in the urban sector by more or less equalising the population as stated below.
less than 1200 -> 1
1200 to 1799 -> 3
1800 to 2399 -> 4
2400 to 2999 -> 5
3000 to 3599 -> 6
..and so on
For rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand (except four districts Dehradun (P), Nainital (P), Hardwar and Udham Singh Nagar), Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Doda, Leh (Ladakh), Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir and Idukki district of Kerala, the number of hamlet-groups are formed as follows:
less than 600 -> 1
600 to 899 -> 3
900 to 1199 -> 4
1200 to 1499 -> 5
..and so on
Formation and selection of hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks:
In case hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks are formed in the sample FSU, the same is done by more or less equalizing population. Two hamlet-groups (hg)/ sub-blocks (sb) are selected from a large FSU wherever hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks have been formed in the following manner - one hg/ sb with maximum percentage share of population is always selected and termed as hg/ sb 1; one more hg/ sb is selected from the remaining hg's/ sb's by simple random sampling (SRS) and termed as hg/ sb 2. Listing and selection of the households is done independently in the two selected hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks. The FSUs without hg/ sb formation are treated as sample hg/ sb number 1. It is to be noted that if more than one hg/ sb have same maximum percentage share of population, the one among them which is listed first in block 4.2 of schedule 0.0 is treated as hg/ sb 1.
Formation of second stage strata and allocation of households
Two cut-off points 'A' and 'B' (in Rs.) have been determined from NSS 66th round data for each NSS state-region for urban areas in such a way that top 10% of the population have MPCE more than 'B' and bottom 30% of the population have MPCE less than A.
For both Schedule 1.0 and Schedule 10, households listed in the selected FSU/ hamlet-group/ sub-block are stratified into three second stage strata (SSS).
Selection of households:
From each SSS the sample households for each of the schedules are selected by SRSWOR. If a household is selected for more than one schedule, only one schedule is canvassed in that household in the priority order of Schedule 1.0 (Type 1), Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) and Schedule 10 and in that case the household would be replaced for the other schedule. If a household is selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 1) it is not selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) or Schedule 10. Similarly, if a household is not selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 1) but selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) it is not selected for Schedule 10.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The period of survey will be of one year duration starting on 1st July 2011 and ending on 30th June 2012. The survey period of this round will be divided into four sub-rounds of three months' duration each as follows:
sub-round 1 : July - September 2011
sub-round 2 : October - December 2011
sub-round 3 : January - March 2012
sub-round 4 : April - June 2012
In each of these four sub-rounds equal number of sample villages/ blocks (FSUs) will be allotted for survey with a view to ensuring uniform spread of sample FSUs over the entire survey period. Attempt should be made to survey each of the FSUs during the sub-round to which it is allotted. Because of the arduous field conditions, this restriction need not be strictly enforced in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep and rural areas of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). India National Sample Survey 2009-2010 (66th round) - Schedule 10 - Employment and Unemployment. Ref. IND_2011_NSS68-SCH10_v01_M. Data downloaded from [web] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.