Enquête Nationale sur le Niveau de Vie des Ménages 1991
Living Standards Survey 1991
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
This is the first Living Standards Survey (MLSS) conducted in Morocco.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 1990-1991 Morocco Living Standards Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Roster
- Information on Parents of Household Members
- Economic Activity (age 7 or more)
- Food Expenditures
- Other Expenditures
- Inventory of Durables Goods
- Non-Food Expenditures
- Vacation Recreational Trips
- Leisure Time (age 15 to 64)
- Migration (age 7 or more)
- Fertility (one woman between the ages of 15 and 69)
- Saving and Credit
- Independent Non-Agricultural Activity
- Other Income
- Anthropometry (children below 11 and their parents)
- Household Literacy
• Self-Perception of Reading, Writing and Math Skills
• Awareness of Basic Health and Nutrition Concepts
• Mathematical Calculations
• Comprehension of Basic Documents
• Arabic Reading Comprehension
• Arabic Writing
• Written Mathematics Operation
• French Reading Comprehension
• French Writing
- Identification and General Information
- Living Conditions
- Public Services
- Other Community Services
- Other Aspects of Living Conditions
- Labor Market
- Price of Food Products
- Price of Non-Food Products
- Identification of Dispensary and Basic Characteristics
- Medical Staff
Producers and sponsors
Direction de la Statistique
Ministère de la Prévision Economique et du Plan
The World Bank
The total number of households initially planned to be interviewed in the survey sample was 3,360. This number was selected based on the resources available, the length of the questionnaire, and the desire to complete the interview process within one calendar year. Due to non response, however, the number of households actually interviewed was 3,323. The sample is representative of the national population distribution between urban and rural areas, but is geographically stratified at the regional level rather than self-weighted, meaning that an equal number of households were chosen from each of seven economic regions (South, Tensift, Center, Center-South, Center-North, East and North-West). Thus the sample itself does not reflect the actual population distribution in Morocco nationwide. However, a system of weights assigned at the household level (calculated by the Moroccan Direction de la Statistique) yields results which are representative at the regional and national levels.
The sample for the 1990-91 MLSS was based on a master sample frame drawn in 1984 by the National Household Survey Unit of the Moroccan Direction de la Statistique (Dispositif National d'Enquêtes auprès des Ménages, Direction de la Statistique). The sample frame was in turn based on the 1982 Moroccan Population Census (Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat de 1982). This master sample frame contains a total of 968 primary sampling units (Unités Primaires, UP). After stratification into 7 economic regions, 140 of the 968 primary sampling units (Ups) were selected at random for the survey, 20 from each economic region.
At this stage the maps for each selected UP were updated, and three secondary sampling units (Unité Secondaire, US) were then selected from each UP according to a 'simple, random, equal probabilities' method of sampling.
Each selected US was enumerated, providing a listing of all households located within its boundaries. Eight households (24 per UP) were then chosen from each US according to random, equal probabilities. The end result is a stratified sample with 20 UPs in each of 7 economic regions. The total number of households in the sample frame is 3,360 (7 regions x 20 UPs x 3 USs x 8 households = 3,360 households). The total number of UPs is 140 (7 x 20), and the total number of USs is 420 (7 x 20 x 3).
Rural vs. Urban Classification:
Of the total 420 USs in the sample, about half were rural. Within each secondary sampling units, there are usually several douars (villages). Douars are classified as either 'grouped' or 'dispersed' (see question 2 in section I of douar questionnaire). Households within the same grouped douar are very close to each other, but households within the same dispersed douar may be very far (as much as 3-5 kilometers) apart. Urban secondary sampling units, and even primary sampling units, are classified as belonging to either a "centre" (town) or a "quartier" (a section of a large city).
The definition of urban and rural areas is drawn from the official Moroccan classification system (according to the 1982 census). The largest cities are 'municipalities', after which come 'centres autonomes' and finally the smallest urban entities, 'centres délimités'. The quartier questionnaire was administered only in municipalities, while the centre questionnaire was administered in both the centres autonomes and centres délimités. Finally, areas which fall outside of all three of these official urban classifications were reclassified as urban if there was a centralized electricity or piped water system. Such reclassified areas are known as 'petite centres', and the centre questionnaire (as opposed to the douar questionnaire) was administered to them.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training and Field Test:
The supervisors (contrôleurs) and interviewers were trained over a period of three months by the staff of the Moroccan Direction de la Statistique. Supervisors received additional training regarding their duties for one week. Data entry operators were trained for 4 weeks (one week of general PC training and 3 weeks of specific training for this survey) by the computer coordinator of the main national team. Anthropometrists (all women) received one week of training from a specialist at the Ministry of Public Health. Training of the test administrators for the literacy module was conducted for two and a half days.
The household survey questionnaire was field-tested between November 3-24, 1989. Then, a dry run (test-blanc) of fieldwork operations for the benefit of all field staff was conducted in March of 1990. After the dry run, interviewers, data entry operators and supervisors received two more weeks of training. The literacy module was field tested separately between August 9-20, 1990.
Organization of Field Work:
Survey fieldwork began on October 15, 1990, and ended on October 30, 1991. Fieldwork was organized into 10 four-week periods (survey “months”), but there were some breaks during this time so that the survey itself took about 54 weeks to complete.
Permanent survey staff (including reserve staff) included the following: Six senior supervisors (superviseurs), 9 fieldwork supervisors (contrôleurs), 48 interviewers (enquêteurs), 10 computer operators for data entry (opératrices de saisie), and 9 drivers (chauffeurs). The staff was divided into 7 teams, each consisting of a supervisor, 4 interviewers, one computer operator, and one driver.
Fieldwork was organized as follows. Each of the seven teams was assigned to one economic region, and was responsible for completing interviews in two primary sampling units (UPs) a month. Thus the monthly workload consisted of 48 households per team and 12 per interviewer. Over the period of one month, each household was visited twice, to complete the first and second parts of the survey questionnaire, respectively. Survey teams worked for 5 days in one UP, used the final two days of the week for travel and rest, and worked the next 5 days in the neighboring UP. The third week they returned to the first UP to complete survey work, and in the fourth week completed work in the second UP. After each week of work, the questionnaires were entered by the computer operator and this way checked systematically for errors. Any errors or omissions were highlighted and returned to the survey staff for verification at the household.
The Literacy module was administered separately by 8 interviewers (of which one half were women), divided into two teams with one supervisor each. Team I covered regions South, Tensift and Center, while Team 2 covered regions North-West, Center-North, Center-South and East. Data collection began on May 20, 1991, and was conducted in 7 sequential time periods of 5 weeks each. During each time period 20 primary sampling units were covered (2 per team/week), with one week off between each time period. Field work went more slowly than anticipated. More people were trained in September 1991, so beginning in the fourth time period (October-November, 1991) a total of three teams were deployed.
The household questionnaire contains two parts divided into a total of 24 sections. Parts I and II were administered to each household in two separate visits, with approximately two weeks in between the first and second visit. The survey covers all household members, defined to include all those individuals for whom the household is their primary residence, and who are economically dependent on the household. Household members also include: individuals who are not physically present but whose absence has been for less than one month (or in the case of those hospitalized, less than six months), lodgers who share at least one meal with the household, and servants who reside at and share meals with the household. The head of household is defined as that individual recognized as the head by the other household members, and is usually the individual with the greatest responsibility for income generation and the management of household expenditures. The household head was asked to respond to questions on general household information, or to indicate which household member should most appropriately respond to a particular question. If the household head was not available, another member able to provide information on household affairs was asked to answer the questions. In most sections of the questionnaire each individual was asked to respond for himself or herself except that parents were allowed to respond for young children.
Household Literacy Module The literacy module was administered to two-thirds of all households surveyed (i.e. in every 2 of the 3 secondary sampling units within each primary sampling unit), and thus covered about 2,240 households. The survey was administered to all persons in the household aged 9 to 69, with the exception of those who had passed the baccalauréat (French high school equivalency test) or with higher education. In the questionnaire, individuals are first asked to rate themselves according to their writing skills in Arabic and French.
Community questionnaires were administered in all 140 primary sampling units (Unités Primaires, UPs). These questionnaires are designed to capture information on the characteristics of the community which influence the living standards of all households in the area. These surveys were conducted by the supervisors (contrôleurs). Depending on whether or not the community was located within a large urban area (quartier), a small urban area (centre), or a rural area (douar), three slightly different community questionnaires were administered. These questionnaires provide information on general housing characteristics, transportation, health, sanitation and education services as well as other general services which might be available such as police, red cross, sports facilities, library, etc. A list of informants from whom the information was obtained is also provided.
The price questionnaire was administered by the supervisor (contrôleur) in each of the secondary sampling units covered by the survey. This module provides information on regional price levels so that nominal price values collected in the household survey can be appropriately deflated according to actual prices prevailing in the area. Prices were collected for each of 74 consumption items (57 food and 17 non - food items).
Dispensary (Health) Questionnaire:
In theory this questionnaire was supposed to be administered to all dispensaries (health centers) located in each primary sampling unit. But in practice, only the dispensaries closest to the households surveyed were chosen to be interviewed. The dispensary data are not representative at a regional or national level, and thus the overall characteristics of health care facilities cannot be assessed. Again, this survey was administered by the supervisors
The questionnaire provides information on the health services offered by each dispensary and associated costs; type of trained personnel, equipment and medicines which are on-hand; and, the types of vaccinations offered.
LSMS Data Manager
The World Bank
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- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.