The Collection of Statistics (Central) Rules, 1959 framed under the 1953 Act provided for, among others, a comprehensive Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) in India. This survey replaced both the CMI (Census of Manufacturing Industries) and SSMI (Sample Survey of Manufacturing Industries). The ASI was launched in 1960 with 1959 as the reference year and is continuing since then except for 1972. For ASI, the Collection of Statistics Act 1953 and the rules frame there-under in 1959 provides the statutory basis. The ASI refers to the factories defined in accordance with the Factories Act 1948, and thus has coverage wider than that of the CMI and SSMI put together.
The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of industrial statistics in India. It provides statistical information to assess changes in the growth, composition and structure of organised manufacturing sector comprising activities related to manufacturing processes, repair services, gas and water supply and cold storage. Industrial sector occupies an important position in the State economy and has a pivotal role to play in the rapid and balanced economic development. The Survey is conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics Act 1953, and the Rules framed there-under in 1959, except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is conducted under the State Collection of Statistics Act, 1961 and the rules framed there-under in 1964.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The primary unit of enumeration in the survey is a factory in the case of manufacturing industries, a workshop in the case of repair services, an undertaking or a licensee in the case of electricity, gas & water supply undertakings and an establishment in the case of bidi & cigar industries. The owner of two or more establishments located in the same State and pertaining to the same industry group and belonging to same scheme (census or sample) is, however, permitted to furnish a single consolidated return. Such consolidated returns are common feature in the case of bidi and cigar establishments, electricity and certain public sector undertakings.
Version1.0: Reorganised Anonymized datasets for publication
The final unit level data of ASI 1997-98 is available in electronic media that can be had from Computer Centre, MOSPI on payment. The same is reproduced here. Meta data contains Schedule, Code list and Tabulation programme. These may be refered before processing the data.
DDI and ID field edited by World Bank Development Data Group for it's microdata library.
The survey covers all the factories registered under Sections 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948, i.e. 10 or more workers with the aid of power or 20 or more workers without the aid of power. The survey also covers bidi and cigar manufacturing establishments registered under the Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966. All electricity undertakings engaged in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, but not registered with the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) are also covered under ASI.
Coverage of the Annual Survey of Industries extends to the entire Factory Sector, comprising industrial units (called factories) registered under section 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act.1948, wherein a "Factory", which is the primary statistical unit of enumeration for the ASI is defined as:- "Any premises" including the precincts thereof:-
(i) wherein ten or more workers are working or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power or is ordinarily so carried on,
or (ii) wherein twenty or more workers are working or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power. In addition to section 2(m)(i) & 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948, electricity units registered with the Central Electricity Authority and Bidi & Cigar units, registered under the Bidi & Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act,1966 are also covered in ASI.
The survey cover factories registered under the Factory Act 1948.
Establishments under the control of the Defence Ministry,oil storage and distribution units, restaurants and cafes and technical training institutions not producing anything for sale or exchange were kept outside the coverage of the ASI.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistics Office (Industrial Statistics Wing)
MOSPI, Government of India
CSO(IS Wing), Kolkata
Analysis, Design and data processing
Field Operation Division, NSSO
MOSPI, Government of India
Standing Committee on Industrial Statistics
Formulation and Finalisation of the survey study
Dissemination and web hosting
The sampling design followed in ASI 1997-98 is a circular systematic one. All the factories in the updated frame (universe) are divided into two sectors, viz., Census and Sample.
Census Sector: Census Sector is defined as follows:
a) All industrial units belonging to the 12 less industrially developed states/ UT's viz. Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Sikkim and Andaman & Nicobar Islands etc.
b) For the rest of the states/ UT's., (i) units having 200 or more workers and also some "Significant Units"were identified from the databases of ASI 1993-94 to ASI 1995-96, which although having less than 200 workers, contributed significantly to the Value of Output in these ASI years. and (ii) all public sector undertakings (PSU) and electricity sector were included in the census sector.
Remaining units, excluding those of Census Sector, called the sample sector, are arranged in order of their number of workers and samples are then drawn circular systematically Sampling technique from each stratum (State X 3-digit NIC) with a minimum of 4 samples per stratum.
The census and sample sectors were such formulated that the Census Sector units comprising at most 9% units contributed at least 90% of Net Value Added (NVA) at All-India level. Alternaitively, the sample sector comprising 91% industrial units contributed less than 10% of NVA.
The sample size n from the above sample sector was determined at All-India level first. Then the total size for a particular state was allocated in the proportion of total output in that stratum.
It may be noted that the sample size in stratum was always taken as an even no. (by adding on unit in case, it was odd) and if, sample size alongwith the no. of census units in any stratum be less than 4, then that stratum was merged with the units of a nearest stratum.
Deviations from the Sample Design
There was no deviation from sample design in ASI 1997-98
Please note that an inflation factor (Multiplier) WGT is available for each unit against records belonging to Block I: Products/By-Products Block Record type 81), for ASI 1997-98 data. The multiplier is calculated for each stratum (i.e. State X NIC-04 (4 Digit) after adjusting for non-response cases.
HOWEVER, IT IS TO BE NOTED THAT ALL THE INDUSTRIES (RECORDS) ARE ALREADY WEIGHTED BY MULTIPLIER FACTOR-WGT so there is no need for further multiplication.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
NSSO under the Ministry of Statistics and PI, Government of India is responsible for supervision of data collection.
Data Collection Notes
Statutory return submitted by factories as well as Face to face.
ASI Schedule has two parts: Part-I and Part-II. Part-I of ASI schedule aims to collect data on assets and liabilities, employment and labour cost, receipts, expenses, input items - indigenous and imported, products and by-products, distributive expenses etc. Part-II of ASI schedule aims to collect data on different aspects of labour statistics, namely, working days, mandays worked, absenteeism, labour turnover, man-hours worked, earning and social security benefits.
General Remarks regarding filling up of ASI schedules
The ASI work involves a number of stages. There are some general procedural aspects.
A separate return for each registered factory/electricity supply undertaking should be submitted as a rule. In following this, the aspects to be taken note of are:
Unless ownership has changed during the reference year, only one return is to be compiled for one factory.
If a part of a registered factory has been operated by the owner and another part by the occupier the total manufacturing activities of both the owner and the occupier should be duly recorded in one return.
If the factory as a whole has been rented out, the return for the factory may be filled from the occupier's point of view.
If for a factory, which is served with notice, is found that its products are meant for training of inmates and has no sale value and are produced as a product during training, the facts may be reported to the Statistics Authority and data need not be collected This is normally applicable to Training Centers and Jails which are registered as factories. Further, workshop in jails registered under factories Act should be canvassed for ASI only when the products of the workshop are meant for sale. In case the products are not sold but are incidental to training to the convicts engaged at the workshop, such a workshop is outside the purviews of ASI.
Submission of Joint Returns
Although, as per rules for such registered unit of inquiry a separate return should be furnished, in special circumstances, where the accounts of two or more registered units cannot be bifurcated factory wise a joint return may be accepted in a particular ASI if all the following conditions are fulfilled:
They are located in the same State.
They belong to the Census Scheme i.e. 200 or more workers only.
They belong to the same industry at the ultimate NIC code level.
There will be no joint return in sample sector. Also there will be no joint return with Census and Sample. In such cases appropriate apportions should be done to avoid any complications in estimation different parameters. In census sector also appropriate apportions should be made if some changes occur in joint returns.
NSSO(Field Operation Division)
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Annual Survey of Industries Questionnaire (in External Resources) is divided into different blocks:
BLOCK A & B :IDENTIFICATION PARTICULARS (Filled by CSO and Industrial Units)
BLOCK C : ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
BLOCK D : EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COST
BLOCK E : RECEIPTS
BLOCK F : EXPENSES
BLOCK G : INPUT ITEMS (indigenous items consumed)
BLOCK H : INPUT ITEMS – directly imported items only (consumed)
BLOCK I : PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS (manufactured by the unit)
BLOCK J : DISTRIBUTIVE EXPENSES
BLOCK K : POLLUTION CONTROL
Pre-data entry scrutiny was carried out on the schedules for inter and intra block consistency checks. Such editing was mostly manual, although some editing was automatic. But, for major inconsistencies, the schedules were referred back to NSSO (FOD) for clarifications/modifications.
Code list, State code list, Tabulation program and ASICC code are attached in the External Resources. which are used for editing and data processing as well..
After pre-data entry scrutiny, all the scrutinised schedules were entered by manual typing through data entry software which was prepared in house. CSO has full fledged Data Processing Centre with technical staff to take up all the processing activities on well established Client-Server architecture system that is used for in house data entry and validation. After data entry, verification of the schedules was also done programmatically. After all kinds of coverage checking and verification, logical validation was done and then the tables were prepared as per the tabulation programme.
The results of ASI are produced in the form of two volumes. Volume - I presents statewise and industry-wise data relating to capital, employments, output - gross and net and several other economic parameters relevant to the industrial sector. Volume -II provides details on materials consumed and ex-factory of products and by products both at all-India level as well as at the level of state/UTs. RSE of estimates at all India level are also available in Volume-I.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Relative Standard Error (RSE) is calculated in terms of worker, wages to worker and GVA using the formula. Programs developed in Visual Foxpro are used to compute the RSE of estimates.
To check for consistency and reliability of data the same are compared with the NIC-2digit level growth rate at all India Index of Production (IIP) and the growth rates obtained from the National Accounts Statistics at current and constant prices for the registered manufacturing sector.
Deputy Director General, CC
Ministry of Statistics and P.I
DDG CSO(IS Wing),Kolkata
Ministry of Statistics and P.I
ASI Processing and Report
Deputy Director General, CSO (IS Wing) 1, Council House Street, Kolkata
Deputy Director General, Computer Centre, East Block-10, R K Puram, New Delhi
Deputy Director, Computer Centre, East Block-10, R K Puram, New Delhi
The ASI data at factory level are strictly confidential and are to be used only for statistical purposes after aggregation.
The collection of Statistics Act assures confidentiality of the data to the factories.
To ensure confidentiality, data of factories with less than three units in an industry are merged. Location of the unit is also not divulged in the micro data.
Data is chargeable. Document accessing for data may be seen at "Data Access" tab on home page of Micro Data Archieve.
ASI Survey 1997-98, provided by CSO(IS Wing) Kolkata.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorised distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Ministry of Statistics and P I
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 2.0 (August 2013). Edited version based on Version 1.0 DDI (IND-CSO-ASI-1997-98) that was done by Computer Centre.